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Re-inventing collectivism? Using innovation collectives to create and grow new technology firms

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David Hudson Sprott School of Business, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada Stoyan Tanev Institute of Technology Innovation Integrative Innovation Management Unit University of Southern Denmark Odense, Denmark. Re-inventing collectivism? Using innovation collectives

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David HudsonSprott School of Business, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, CanadaStoyan TanevInstitute of Technology Innovation Integrative Innovation Management Unit University of Southern DenmarkOdense, Denmark

Re-inventing collectivism?

Using innovation collectives

to create and grow new technology firms

introduction
Introduction
  • Summary of lessons learned from action research program resulting in a model with 10 hypotheses examining university spin-off efficiency.
  • Formation of academic spin-off is conceptualized to be embedded in a collective that includes entrepreneurs and those who help them transform their ideas into ventures.
  • Ten factors organized into two constructs
    • idea-venture path
    • collective structure
  • The two constructs are identified as determinants of academic spin-off efficiency.
objective
Objective
  • Examining the factors that affect academic spin-off efficiency.
  • Action research program including the launching and operation of five collectives that support startup formation over a nine-year period:
    • Lead to Win 2002 (business creation)
    • Talent First Network 2002-2006 (OS tech commercialization)
    • Lead to Win 2009+ (business creation)
    • Coral CEA 2010+ (Communications Enabled Applications)
    • 1000 KOTS 2011+ (Keystone of the Shelf startups)
  • All five collectives associated with the Technology Innovation Management program at Carleton U
action research context
Action research context
  • Student entrepreneurs engage into collectives for the purpose of transforming their ideas into ventures along a specific idea-spin off path.
  • A collective is comprised of
    • student entrepreneurs, academics, mentors
    • individuals who participate in user involvement initiatives
    • personnel who work for economic development organizations
    • providers of incubation services and risk capital
    • company managers.
  • Each student entrepreneur leads a self-organizing team, contributes specific domain knowledge and professional network ties, and interacts with other members of the collective.
research model
Research model

Idea spin off path

  • Product or process
    • Distinctiveness of offer / operations
    • Fit with system level opportunity
    • Proper use of OS technology
  • Learning and acting costs
  • Ties with external groups
    • # of external groups
    • Strength of ties

Spin-off efficiency

  • Cost
  • Time

Collective structure

  • Diversity
    • Knowledge
    • Payoff horizon
  • Stakeholder involvement initiatives
  • Reputation
path related factors i
Path-related factors - I
  • Distinctiveness

Hypothesis 1: The greater the distinctiveness of a venture’s offer or operational process, the higher the probability of academic spin-off efficiency.

  • Fit with system level opportunity

Hypothesis 2: The greater the fit of a venture’s offer to a system level opportunity being carried out by the collective, the higher the probability of academic spin-off efficiency.

  • Use of open source technology

Hypothesis 3: The greater the extent of proper use of open source technology, the higher the probability of academic spin-off efficiency.

path related factors ii
Path-related factors - II
  • Learning and acting costs

Hypothesis 4: The lower the cost of learning from other entrepreneurs and venture stakeholders, the higher the probability of academic spin-off efficiency.

  • Ties with external groups

Hypothesis 5: The greater the number of groups that an entrepreneur can access through ties with other members of the collective, the higher the probability of academic spin-off efficiency.

  • Tie strength

Hypothesis 6: The stronger the ties between the entrepreneur and members of the collective, the higher the probability of academic spin-off efficiency.

collective related factors i
Collective -related factors - I
  • Knowledge diversity

Hypothesis 7: The greater the knowledge diversity of the collective, the higher the probability of academic spin-off efficiency.

  • “Time-to-payoff” diversity

Hypothesis 8: The greater the time-to-payoff diversity of the collective, the higher the probability of academic spin-off efficiency.

collective related factors ii
Collective -related factors - II
  • Stakeholder interaction

Hypothesis 9: The greater the number of stakeholder involvement initiatives in which an entrepreneur can participate to shape and harden his opportunity, the higher the probability of academic spin-off efficiency.

  • Reputation

Hypothesis 10: The stronger the reputation of the collective, the higher the probability of academic spin-off efficiency.

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Highlighting the importance of the structure of the collective in which the development of an academic spin-off occurs
    • identifying the collective-related factors expected to increase academic spin-off efficiency
  • Examining the time and cost efficiency over all the phases of the development of an academic spin-off, not just the later phases
  • Focusing on the results of action research carried out over a nine-year period
    • operating five collectives that focused on the creation of successful ventures