Nir Krakauer 2/’04. the redox ladder. half-reaction coupling:. 1. O 2. H 2 O. clockwise: spontaneous, can produce free energy (catabolic). 0.5. NO 3 -. NO 2 -. NO 2 -. NH 4 +. ccw: requires free energy (anabolic). Mn +4. Mn +2. 0. FeOOH. Fe +2. SO 4 -2. HS -. CH 4.
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→ O2 at <~0.01 PAL (Berkner and Marshall : photolysis of H2O generates <<10-3 PAL)
→ O2 at >0.01 PAL