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The Abstraction Ladder. “Get on Down”. Instructor Comments . Be specific Lacks support Such as? Like what? Give examples! Undeveloped No proof Too general Lacking in specifics. Terms to know. Abstract General What are the opposites of these two terms? Concrete Specific.

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the abstraction ladder

The Abstraction Ladder

“Get on Down”

instructor comments
Instructor Comments
  • Be specific
  • Lacks support
  • Such as?
  • Like what?
  • Give examples!
  • Undeveloped
  • No proof
  • Too general
  • Lacking in specifics
terms to know
Terms to know

Abstract General

What are the opposites of these two terms?

Concrete Specific

definitions
Definitions
  • A generalization usually includes abstract ideas.
  • A specific statement usually includes more concrete items.
galaxy
Galaxy
  • Abstract or Concrete?
  • Very abstract: Astronomers do not know where or how many galaxies there are.
the ladder from the most abstract concept to the most concrete
The Ladder: from the most abstract concept to the most concrete
  • Galaxy
  • Milky Way
  • Solar System
  • Earth
ladder
Ladder
  • North America
  • United States
  • Florida
  • Orlando
  • Orange County
ladder1
Ladder
  • Kirkman Road
  • Valencia CC Campus West
  • Building 4
  • Room 235
  • Professor’s Desk
we have gone from the most abstract concept to the most concrete
We have gone from the most abstract concept to the most concrete.
  • Galaxy – most abstract/general

14. Professor’s desk – most concrete/specific

compare these lists
Compare these lists

A. B.

  • Contentment a ball point pen
  • Hate a pink, frilly party dress
  • Revenge a downy, soft blanket
  • Jealousy a red and white bird
  • Spite wrapping paper
  • Revulsion a canon printer
  • Nervousness a brick house
  • Resentment a 25 foot, live-oak tree
abstract or concrete
Abstract or Concrete?
  • Love
  • Box of chocolates
  • Bottle of Tommy Hilfiger cologne
  • Anger
  • Slap in the face
  • Temper tantrum
  • Fear
  • Happiness
  • Dimpled smile
  • Sadness
  • Tear-stained face
  • Shriek at midnight
slide12

Can any of the specific (concrete) entries be examples of the more abstract (general)?

Love

Box of chocolates

Bottle of Tommy Hilfiger cologne

Anger

Slap in the face

Temper tantrum

Fear

Happiness

Dimpled smile

Sadness

Tear-stained face

Shriek at midnight

specific support
Specific Support

Bottom line:

Begin your paragraph with your most general statement, the topic sentence. Then support it with specific (concrete) details.

your turn
Your Turn
  • Here is a generalization that could be the topic sentence for a paragraph. Try to come up with ideas for specific support.
  • My mother has too many shoes!