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The Precipitation Ladder

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  1. The Precipitation Ladder http://www.islandnet.com/~see/weather/elements/makerain.htm http://www.islandnet.com/~see/weather/elements/makerain.htm

  2. Cloud Droplets and Raindrops More in Lab 7 later today BTW, GOES = Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

  3. Cloud Droplets and Raindrops Precipitation Ladder

  4. Step 10: Growth – p. 90Three ways to grow over 30 diameters from cloud droplet to raindrop • Direct deposition – “accretion” • Large fall faster and catch up with smaller drops – collide and “coalesce” • “Supercooled” water = liquid water below freezing point (down to 40 oC) spontaneously migrates to nearby ice crystals Snowflakes! • Complicated physics • Bergeron process

  5. Raindrops, so many raindrops Link to the Weather Doctor

  6. Snowflake shapes – p. 96 • Plates • Stellars • Columns • Needles • Spatial dendrites • Capped columns • Irregular crystals • Not Snow: Graupel – Sleet - Hail

  7. Solid Precipitation other than snow Graupel(?), Sleet, Hail, Rime

  8. Graupel – p. 97 A soft granular mass of frozen cloud droplets

  9. Graupel – “soft hail”

  10. Graupel

  11. Graupel

  12. Sleet – p. 97 Frozen drizzle, with some complications

  13. Sleet

  14. Rime – p. 98 More of a “deposition” than precipitation Some kinds of it are called “hoar frost” Some purdy pilfered pitchers follow:

  15. Rime

  16. Rime

  17. Rime

  18. Rime

  19. Hail – p. 98 Formed in updrafts in large CB clouds Has multiple layers from partial melting and refreezing

  20. Hail in a CB

  21. Hail

  22. Hail

  23. Hail

  24. Hail

  25. Raindrops

  26. Raindrops • Not tear-drop shaped • Different classification by size • Showers • From cumulonimbus or cumulus congestus • Up to 6 mm • Rain • From nimbostratus • 1 – 2 mm • Drizzle • From stratus • .1 - .5 mm, effectively soaking into ground • Mist • .05 - .8 mm, from stratus • Oregon Mist or Scotch Mist

  27. Oregon Mist?