The Nuts and Bolts Of INCLUSION
Presenters Julie Carpenter Kathy Sullivan Peggy Windham
CONFIDENTIALITY Watch what you say Where you say it To whom you say it
TIERING GUIDELINES The following tiers are designed to reflect the support services needed by an individual student.
Regular grade State testing program Use of accommodations Strategies Lab as needed, “drop-ins,” but not pulled from a core course Sp ed teachers interact with general ed teachers, not with sp ed students Collaborative planning Documented collaboration between general and special ed teachers Students are never removed from general ed courses during class to receive sp ed services Tier 1 Regular Diploma
Regular grade/AOD grade State testing program Use of accommodations General ed core courses & Strategies elective course Occasional co-teaching Collaborative planning Sp ed teacher supports general ed teacher’s instruction, but is neverprimarily responsible for providing instruction Students are never removed from general ed core courses in order to receive sp ed services Tier 2 Regular Diploma or Alabama Occupational Diploma (AOD)
Basic grade/AOD grade State testing program/ Alabama Alternative Assessment (AAA) Students not expected to learn all of the gen ed COS standards Collaborative planning Co-teaching in selected general ed classes Instruction may be provided in general ed or specialized settings appropriate to the needs of students Tier 3AOD / Graduation Certificate
Basic grade AAA Instruction in extended standards Instruction may be provided in general ed or specialized settings appropriate to the needs of students Co-planning Co-teaching in selected general ed classes Sp ed teachers are responsible for closely monitoring instruction to ensure WHAT students are being taught and HOW they are being taught aligns with effective practice May require intensive instruction in developmentally appropriate COS standards closely associated with independent living Tier 4Graduation Certification
??? QUESTIONS ??? If time runs out, the questions and answers will be e-mailed to each principal.
The grading dilemma… ??? BASIC or REGULAR ???
Where can I find what kind of grade the student is earning? Each special education student’sAccess To IEP, IEP,and CRT testing pages will state if s/he will earn a regular or basic grade.
ACCOMMODATIONS • Strategies which enable a student to access the general curriculum. • The curriculum is NOT changed. • The student receives a regular grade.
MODIFICATIONS • Changes to the essential grade level curriculum or standards. • Must be clearly stated in the student’s IEP. • The student receives a basic grade to document that the grade level curriculum was altered.
WARNING!!!!!!!! The assigning of a basic grade was never meant to be –AND NEVER SHOULD BE- a modification.
Dangers of using the basic grade as the only modification… • Disguises the need for a genuinely modified curriculum which will enable the student to close the gap between his functional level and grade level • May teach the student he does not have to be accountable
Know the Student Strengths IEP goals Learning style Support needs Know the Content Standards Instructional process Assessment Classroom climate Decision-Making Framework
How can the student participate in the course? Can the student participate in the course with the same outcomes with accommodations to facilitate access? OR Can the student participate in the lesson, but with different outcomes (modifications)?
If the student attends the general ed classroom and receives accommodations only… • The general ed teacher will record a regular grade. • The special ed teacher(s) may provide input. • Document the testing and instructional accommodations (ex., record the specific accommodation on the assignment/test).
If the student’s course is modified… • The general and special ed teachers should be working collaboratively. • The student will receive a basic grade.
If the student is in the general education classroom . . . • The student should be listed on the general education teacher’s roll, but • Can be listed separately under Basic Math, Basic Language Arts, etc.
The IEP Team determines . . . • Which accommodations are needed to enable the student to access the general curriculum • When accommodations are not enough and the curriculum must be modified A student may only need accommodations for one subject, but require modifications for another.
Beware of making generalizations about curriculum adaptations . . . • Whether a curriculum adaptation is an accommodation or a modification depends on the specific objective of the task. • A curriculum adaptation may be an accommodation for one task, but a modification for another.
ACTIVITY • After the statement is read, raise your hand if it is an accommodation
Accommodation or Modification? • Using a calculator on a test of math reasoning • Using a calculator on a test of math computation • Reading a passage to a student who then answers reading comprehension questions • Reading a social studies test to a student who then answers knowledge questions
Both accommodations and modifications must be . . . • Based on the student’s individual needs as indicated by his PLOP (Present Level of Performance) • Clearly defined in the IEP • Communicated by the case manager to each educator who works with the student • Implemented by each educator who works with the student
Access to IEP • This form should be completed by the case manager for each student on his/her caseload • Corresponds to the accommodations and/or modifications written in the IEP • Documents that each teacher, counselor, and administrator has been informed of the accommodations and/or modifications and understands that s/he has access to the student’s IEP and behavior intervention plan
IMPLEMENTATION of accommodations and modifications must be documented. • Lesson plans • Checklists • Annotations on student work • Logs • Notes
_____ Reading subject area test read aloud by test administrator. Note: This accommodation is only available to studentswho have a documented reading level three or more years below actual grade level AND receive a basic reading grade. Results from this administration will only be used for Present Level of Academic Performance. Accommodation listed on the CRT pages in the IEP:
Students may also receive testing accommodations for . . . • State assessments • CRTs • Classroom tests
Test accommodations are … • Based on student needs as demonstrated by PLOP • Determined by the IEP Team • Recorded in the IEP on specific assessment pages and on the goal pages
Not all accommodations are allowed for every test • Student assessment pages in the IEP will list allowed accommodations. • Accommodations for state-mandated testing and CRTs are limited to those which the student regularly receives on classroom tests. • Accommodations for classroom tests should be documented.
??? Questions ??? If time runs out, the questions and answers will be e-mailed to each principal.
Teaming Model Special education teacher is assigned to one grade level team with one planning period per week for the team.
Collaborative/Consultative Model The special education teacher is made available to re-teach a difficult skill or help with a newly acquired skill.
The general education and special education teachers work together to teach students with/without disabilities in a shared classroom. One teach/one support Parallel teaching Station teaching Alternative teaching Team teaching Co-teaching Model
One Teach/One Support • This organization works well for teaching a unit where one teacher is more expert than the other. • Benefits • Students have two teachers to answer questions and give help.
Parallel Teaching Design • The teacher divides the class into groups and teaches them simultaneously. • Benefits: • the student to teacher ratio is low, • more time is devoted to learning versus students waiting for help, • support for the teacher is present, • behavior problems can be minimized.
Station Teaching • This collaborative teaching model divides up content and students so that teachers or students rotate at the end of the unit. • Benefits: • Student to teacher ratio is low • Teachers become experts with material • Station teaching is ideal for subject matter taught in units with no particular sequence • Constant communication
Alternative Teaching Design • One teacher leads an enrichment activity while a second teacher re-teachers a small group of students that are having difficulty with content. • Math is compatible with this design where a lot of re-teaching is done.
Team Teaching • Teachers work together to deliver the same material to the entire class • Teachers circulate around the class providing immediate re-teaching and a lower student to teacher ratio.
Handle the logistics that affect inclusion: • Schedules • Substitutes • Class assignment • Class loads • Resources • Collaboration time
Provide teacher support when needed by listening, by encouraging and by obtaining needed materials and resources.