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SYLVATIC RABIES IN RUSSIA WITH SPECIAL ATTENTION TO PERSPECTIVES OF ORAL VACCINATION OF WILD CARNIVORES A. Botvinkin, D. Bankovsky, G. Safonov Irkutsk State Medical University Pokrov plan of biologics, Russia
The areas of different risk of human rabies in Russia and former Soviet Union (retrospective analysis)
Wild animals consisted of~40% of total cases Case number increased in 4.3 times in 2000-2005 56 regions of Russia (from 72) reported about wildlife rabies 34% of all human rabies cases were connected with wild animals: - foxes 17.4% - wolves 9.8% - raccoon dogs 5.4% - badgers 1.1% Wildlife rabies in Russia(2000-2005, Kchadartsev et al., 2006)
Oral rabies vaccination and wildlife rabies in Russia • Large scale ORV started in 1998 (Avilov et al., 2002) • ORV is continuing till now • Why we have no positive results?
The main objective problems on the way of oral rabies vaccination in Russia • Very wide rabies affected territory • Different target species • Limited effect of water natural barriers in winter time
Natural reservoir and vectors of rabies virus in Russia • Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) • Raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) • Polar fox (Alopex lagopus) • Steppe fox (Vulpes corsac) • Wolf (Canis lupus) • Jackal (Canis aurius) • Badger (Meles meles)
Rabies-enzootic territories in Russia are fragmented. Four areas are delineated by epidemiological and molecular data: • (1) center and north-west of the European part of Russia (red fox and raccoon dog are the main virus reservoirs); • (2) south-eastern Europe and south of Western Siberia (rabies is maintained predominantly by the red and corsac foxes); • (3) south of the Far East (raccoon dog); • (4) arctic and subarctic area (arctic fox).
Different host species (text) and different strains of rabies virus (color)
The main subjective problems on the way of ORV in Russia • Absence of long-term national management plan with stable financial support • Wrong general goal and strategy of oral vaccine distribution • Absence of interdisciplinary managment team
General approaches at the beginning of ORV in Russia • Uniform distribution of oral vaccine between rabies affected administrative regions (30-60 th. doses to each region per year) • Main goals – reduction of case number eradication of rabies in some districts or regions within affected territory
Oral rabies vaccination in Russia in 1998 -2000: ”Lysvulpen” & “Sinrab” (25-29 regions each year) (Avilov et al., 2002; Kuzmin et al.,2002)
What we have to do? • To change a goals: General goal – reduction of rabies affected territory step by step • To select main target species and territories
Possible approaches for of ORV i) barrier application ORV along the western borders of Russia on the base of international cooperation ii) barrier application for strengthening of natural barriers iii) elimination of specific rabies virus strain in Russian Far East
History of wildlife rabies.Human rabies after red fox, badger and raccoon dog bites in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.
Raccoon dog is a host of original RV strains in Far East of Asia and target species for ORV
The nearest tasks • Optimization of management • Concentration of the resources • International cooperation