Purpose The purpose is to increase awareness of Forest Activities rules and how they relate to safety. Objectives: Understand how safety and health management has been incorporated into the Forest Activities rules Have a better understanding of the Forest Activities rules Introduce to some new terms included in the rules Please Note: This material or any other material used to inform employers of safety and health issues or of compliance requirements of Oregon OSHA standards through simplification of the regulations should not be considered a substitute for any provisions of the Oregon Safe Employment Act or for any standards issued by Oregon OSHA. Different regulations apply in Idaho.
Terms to be familiar with Potential failure zone Competent person Qualified person Designated person Supervisor Pre-work meeting
WHY Do we have an emphasis program on forest activities specific to struck-by injuries? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ • FATALITY • A turn of logs was on it’s way to the landing, when a choker broke, releasing a log down the hill striking the victim who was not in the clear. What are reasons this happened? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ How can we prevent this from happening again? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________
DIVISION 7 Subdivision B Safety and Health Program
DIVISION 7 Subdivision B Commitment Evaluation Commitment
Management Commitment • The employer must: 437-007-0105 • State the purpose of the safety and health program. • Identify the safety and health personnel and resources that will be used to implement the program. • Establish a labor and management policy that provides for ongoing evaluation of employees' safety performance. • Establish a disciplinary policy to address unsafe work practices. • Assign the responsibility, authority and accountability for worker safety and health to all employees who supervise or direct work activity. • Authorize a competent person(s) for each jobsite who has the authority to: • Supervise all personnel at the site. • Enforce the company's safety and health program. • Does the company have a disciplinary policy? • Why should these policies be in writing? • Where are copies of company safety policies located?
Accountability Commitment DIVISION 7 Subdivision B Accountability
Supervisory Responsibilities • The employer or their authorized 437-007-0110 • representative must: • Supervise all employees at the site and enforce the company's safety and health program. • Verify that all current and new employees: • Can safely perform assigned work tasks. • Have received adequate job safety instruction and training. • Periodically review the safety performance of each employee. • Provide job safety and health instruction, training or disciplinary action to an employee when the employee is working in an unsafe manner. • NOTE: This training can be limited to the specific information needed to correct the unsafe work practice(s). MORE
Supervisory Responsibilities The employer or their authorized 437-007-0110 representative must: Closely supervise each employee who is receiving job safety and health instruction and training. Require all employees to demonstrate the ability to safely perform their work task before permitting them to work independently. How does the supervisor assure compliance with company policies? How does the supervisor evaluate employees performing their duties? Who is the competent person at your worksite?
Involvement Accountability Commitment DIVISION 7 Subdivision B Involvement
Employee Involvement • The employer or their authorized 437-007-0130 • representative must: • Encourage employees to participate in site planning and the pre-work safety meeting to discuss site conditions and known hazards. • Require employees to report safety and health hazards. • Require qualified employees to take corrective action and eliminate hazards. • Conduct monthly safety meetings with all employees. • Keep written minutes and attendance records for 3 years. • Make written minutes and attendance records available to all employees. • NOTE: Meetings may be with individuals, separate crews, or larger groups. • Does your company have safety meetings? • Do employees participate in pre-work meetings?
Hazard Involvement Identification Accountability Commitment DIVISION 7 Subdivision B Hazard Identification
Hazard Identification and Control • The employer or their authorized 437-007-0135 • representative must: • Implement a procedure for monthly safety inspections of all worksites, vehicles, machines, equipment, and work practices. • Identify who will complete monthly safety inspections. • Implement procedures that will be used to report and correct hazardous conditions. • Who does the monthly inspections? • How do employees report hazards? • Who is in charge of assuring corrective actions are taken?
Accident Investigation Hazard Involvement Identification Accountability Commitment DIVISION 7 Subdivision B Accident / Incident Investigation
Accident Investigation The employer or their authorized 437-007-0125 representative must: Investigate every employee fatal and recordable injury/illness to determine the cause(s). Discuss “near misses” with employees. Identify the measures to prevent recurrence of the “near misses,” fatal and recordable injury/illness. Inform all employees of the preventive measures resulting from investigations. Take steps to prevent recurrence of similar “near misses,” fatal and recordable injury/illness. Keep written results of the fatal and recordable injury/illness investigations and corrective measures for 3 years. How do employees report near-misses? When are near-misses and accidents discussed? Who conducts your accident investigations?
Accident Investigation No discipline procedures Discipline not administered No policy to involve employees Employee input not encouraged Weed out the causes of injuries and illnesses Strains Direct Causes of Injury/Illness Burns Cuts Unguarded machine Horseplay Create a hazard Surface Causes of the Accident Broken tools Ignore a hazard Chemical spill Fails to report injury Defective PPE Fails to inspect Untrained worker Behaviors Conditions Fails to enforce Lack of time To much work Fails to train Inadequate training Training not implemented Inspections not done No inspection process Root Causes of the Accident
Accident Investigation Direct Cause of Injury ________________________________ ________________________________ Hazardous Condition Unsafe Behavior __________________________________ _________________________________ Contributing conditions Contributing behaviors __________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ Design root causes Implementation root causes __________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS
Accident Investigation Training Hazard Involvement Identification Accountability Commitment DIVISION 7 Subdivision B Training
Training • The employer or their authorized 437-007-0140 • representative must: • Provide job safety and health instruction and training to current and new employees, including supervisors, that is adequate for the work task. • Evaluate each employee who has previously received job safety and health instruction and training. • Require each employee receiving job safety and health instruction and training to: • Work under the close supervision of a qualified person. • Demonstrate to the employer or his authorized representative the ability to safely perform the work assignment before they are permitted to work independently. • Assure that a qualified person(s) presents the job safety and health instruction and training. • Assure that job safety and health instruction and training is: • Presented in a language and manner that the employee(s) is able to understand. • Appropriate in content for the skill level of the employee(s) being trained. • Keep a current written record of job safety and health instruction and training for each employee.
Training 437-007-0140 Who does the company’s training? How do trainees demonstrate the ability to perform given tasks? When do you train employees? How do you assure everyone is trained?
DIVISION 7 Subdivision B Evaluation
Annual Program Evaluation 437-007-0145 Each employer must review and evaluate their safety and health program annually. The program evaluation must include the methods and procedures used to identify and revise program deficiencies. Written findings of the annual evaluation must be maintained for 3 years from the date of issue. Who evaluates your safety and health program? Who is supposed to notify OR-OSHA of an accident? When should OR-OSHA be notified?
DIVISION 7 Subdivision C Planning First Aid Working Conditions
Planning, First Aid, Working Conditions What is planning? When should planning occur? Who should be involved in planning? How is the plan communicated to all employees?
Planning, First Aid, Working Conditions • The employer must develop and implement an emergency • medical plan. • All employees must be knowledgeable of the plan. • All employees in forest activities must be first aid and CPR • trained as follows: • At least every two years. • All supervisors and cutters prior to initial assignment. • New employees other then cutters and supervisors must at least have a first aid CPR briefing before starting. Does your employer have an emergency medical plan? How do you notify emergency medical services? Are there any dead spots where the radios or phones do not work? Where are the first aid supplies?
Planning, First Aid, Working Conditions At worksites of more then one day duration,the employer must have available near the worksite communications device: Written land directions to the worksite. The worksite location by Township, Range and section. Vehicles used to transport personnel must carry a first aid kit: Suitable for the number of passengers customarilytransported. Suitable for the types of injuries that could occur. Located where they are readily available to the driver or crew. First aid kits must be provided at each worksite. 437-007-0220-(11) Where are your first aid kits? Who checks the first aid kits? Where do you get material to fill the first aid kit? Where are the directions to your site? Do you have the coordinates to your worksite?
Planning, First Aid, Working Conditions Workers must be placed and their activities arranged so they are in the clear and the actions of one worker will not create a hazard for any other worker(s) On a daily basis a competent person must evaluate any danger tree or snags. Employees must not be assigned to work at a location so isolated to be without visual, or audible contact. Workers are not prohibited from working alone when performing jobs such as mechanics, watchers, operating motor vehicles, self loaders, mechanized logging machines, feller bunchers, forwarders, processors, harvesters or excavator based machines provided the employer complies with the checking system, protective structures and medical and first aid requirements. Who does your inspections? Do you have employees who work alone? Do you have a check-in system for employees who work alone? What is the time-frame for checking on employees who work alone?
DIVISION 7 Subdivision D Personal Protective Equipment
Personal Protective Equipment All PPE must be maintained in a safe and effective condition or removed from service. PPE must be inspected before initial use each shift. Defective or damaged PPE must be repaired or replaced. Head protection, required where there is a potential for head injuries from falling or flying objects the employer must provide and require their use. Employees working in or under a vehicle cab or canopy are excluded while in or under, the cab. When are you required to wear high visible clothing? When is eye protection required? How do you get PPE replaced? When is hearing protection required? When do you replace leg protection?
DIVISION 7 Subdivision E Tools Fire Extinguishers Explosives
Tools,Fire Extinguishers,Explosives The employer is responsible for the safe condition of hand and power tools regardless of ownership. The safety devices and controls must be in place and function properly. The employer must require personnel to: Inspect each tool before use to assure its safe condition. Report any unsafe tool condition to the employer. Remove or repair tools if the condition affects safe operation. Tools must be: Appropriate for their use. Used in a safe manner. When tools are not being used, they must be stored in a location where they will not create a hazard. Who inspects your hand and power tools? Who repairs faulty tools? Where are tools stored when not in use?
Tools, Fire Extinguishers,Explosives There must be an approved fire extinguisher with a minimum of 1A:10BC on each vehicle and machine. Fire extinguishers must be fully charged and maintained in operable condition. Portable fire extinguishers must be visually inspected monthly and have a yearly maintenance check. The annual maintenance check must be documented and retained. Who inspects the fire extinguishers? What could cause a fire extinguisher to be taken out of service?
Tools, Fire Extinguishers, Explosives • Explosives and blasting agents must be handled by qualified, • designated personnel. • Explosives and blasting agents must not be transported: • In the drivers compartment. • Any passenger-occupied area of a machine or vehicle. • Explosives must not be hauled on any vehicle while it is transporting workers. Who is qualified to handle explosives at your workplace?
DIVISION 7 Subdivision F Roads Flagging Vehicles Flammables
Roads, Flagging, Vehicles and Flammables • Haul roads must be of sufficient width and evenness for safe • operation of vehicles and machines. • Haul roads and bridges must be constructed and maintained • to accommodate the safe movement of vehicles and • equipment • . • On those portions of roads under the direct control of the • employer: • All danger trees must be felled. • Loose rocks, stumps and other materials which present a • hazard must be secured or cleared from banks. • Who inspects haul roads for hazardous conditions? • Who inspects roads and bridges to assure they are adequate? • What do you do if a hazard is identified? • What do you do if you do not control the road and there is a hazard?
Roads,Flagging, Vehicles and Flammables Warning signs and a flagger must be placed in advance of active operations, or other protection must be used on roads to control traffic where hazardous conditions are created by forest activities. Flaggers must wear vests of high visibility color and use a stop/slow paddle sign to control traffic. Along state and county roads flagging activities must comply with the MUTCD. Who decides when flagging is required? Who does the flagging? How do you know if traffic control is not working? Who sets up traffic control?
Roads, Flagging, Vehicles and Flammables A positive shut-off must be provided within reach of the operator in normal operating position. Vehicles must be equipped with adequate steps, ladders, handholds or grab bars to provide safe access and egress. Steps must be slip resistant. Seats must be securely fastened. Doors must open easily. All vehicles must be equipped with a horn or warning device which can be clearly heard above the surrounding noise. All vehicles must have brakes which are capable of stopping the vehicle while fully loaded on any grade they are operated on. All vehicles must have a parking brake that will hold the loaded vehicle on any grade which it is operated. Who inspects your vehicles? What do they look for? Do your vehicles have seat belts? How do you know vehicles are being inspected?
Roads, Flagging, Vehicles and Flammables • Containers of flammable and combustible liquids must be marked in accordance with the rules for hazard communications. • Smoking within 35 feet of vehicles being fueled is prohibited. • Tanks, barrels or containers of gasoline, aviation fuel or diesel must not be hauled on vehicles transporting workers except when: • Carried in a suitable location outside the driver passenger compartment or placed in a well-ventilated vapor-proof compartment. • Secured to prevent shifting • Do you haul fuel in vehicles transporting workers? • Are all of your 5-gallon or smaller containers approved for hauling fuel? • Are all containers marked to identify what they contain?
DIVISION 7 Additional Activities
DIVISION 7 Subdivision G Rigging Rigging practices
Rigging and Rigging Practices • All rigging and ropes must be inspected before they are used. • Any equipment needing repair must be repaired before use. • Rigging and loads must not foul or saw against lines, straps blocks or other • equipment. • Line cutting or splicing: • Hard hammers must not be used. • Eye protection worn when cutting line. • Pressed eyes must not be used for skyline eyes that will be crossed with loaded carriages. • Quick nubs must not be used as guyline or skyline end fittings. • How would you define competent person? • When should inspections take place? • What do you use to cut lines? • How do you protect employees when cutting lines?
Rigging and Rigging Practices A competent person must choose and inspect anchors. Defective equipment must be removed from service immediately. Climbing equipment must have a breaking strength of not less then 5,000 pounds. A second person with climbing experience and an extra set of climbing gear must be available at the worksite for emergencies. A competent person must direct the raising and lowering of each metal tower. Structural modifications that affect the capacity or safe operation of the tower must be made under the direction of the manufacturer or a registered professional engineer. Where do you use quick nubs? Who inspects your straps? What would cause a line to be taken out of service? What should you look for when selecting guyline anchors? Do you have a second climber on each crew? Who inspects your tower when it is down?
DIVISION 7 Subdivision H Machines used in Forest Activities
Machines used in Forest Activities Machines must be operated in a manner not to create a hazard for personnel or other machines. A clearance of 3 feet must be maintained between the rotating superstructure and any adjacent object or surface. Items must not be stored within 3 feet of a machine if such items would expose personnel to hazards caused by the rotation of the superstructure. The exception is items may be stored in a locked box or otherwise secured under the exclusive control of the operator. Machines must be started and operated only by authorized personnel. Operators must be instructed about and comply with manufacturers recommendations. Before starting or moving equipment the operator must determine all personnel are in the clear. Machines must be inspected daily. Machines must be operated from the operators station or an area recommended by the manufacturer. What should the operator check when inspecting a machine? Who are the authorized operators of your equipment? How do you know it is safe to enter the area around a machine? Who has the key to the locked box on the loader or other equipment?
Machines used in Forest Activities Machine decks, drums and other walking surfaces must be covered with a non-slip material suitable for the footwear worn. A safe and adequate means of access and egress such as steps, ladders, handholds and railings must be provided and maintained to all parts of machines where employees must go. Guards must be in place at all times. All exposed moving parts must be guarded. . Who checks for damaged catwalks, ladders and railings? What is the process for repairing damage? How are new lines spooled on drums? Do you have ladders or some other means for access to all your equipment?
Machines used in Forest Activities Loading equipment must have a signaling device of a different tone than other signaling devices in the area. Chippers access covers and doors must remain closed until drum or disk is at a complete stop. Machines must have exhaust systems maintained in good working order. Exhaust pipes must be insulated or located to protect employees from accidental contact with pipes. Windows and windshields must be free from defects that endanger the operator. Be safety glass or provide equal protection. Not impair the operators vision and have an additional guard if the window does not provide adequate protection. Do you have damaged windows? Do you have signaling devices on all loading equipment?
DIVISION 7 Subdivision I Cutting Trees Pre-commercial Thinning Slashing
Cutting Trees, Pre-commercial Thinning and Slashing • Any worker falling trees or bucking a log must be located so they do not endanger others. • The minimum distance between workers manually falling trees and others must be twice the height of the trees being felled. • Personnel must not approach within two tree lengths without receiving a signal it is safe. • Workers whose primary job is to manually use a chain saw for activities like falling and bucking trees, pre-commercial thinning brush clearing and slashing must carry a whistle. • When cutting next to roads create hazards they must comply with the rules for flagging roads. • A worker must not: • Work under a lodged tree. • Cut a tree that another tree is lodged in. • Only qualified workers may fall danger trees. • Who is the supervisor or qualified cutter to discuss safety issues with? • Who contacts the power company when it is necessary? • What would you call a danger tree? • Who is qualified to cut danger trees?
DIVISION 7 Subdivision J Yarding Processing, Signaling Communications
Yarding, Processing and Communications When equipment is moved within the landing area personnel, must stay in the clear, inform operator before approaching and wait for permission to approach. Machines must be operated a safe distance from personnel. Tools and equipment must be stored in a safe location. Logs must not be moved or placed in an area until personnel are in the clear. Landings must be large enough to land, process heel or swing logs without striking standing timber, trucks, vehicles, machines or other objects. All personnel and equipment must be in the clear before landing logs. Logs must be stable and rigging stopped before personnel enter chute. How do you contact equipment operators? How do you know if they saw you? How do you decide where the safe area is on the landing? How does the operator know the chaser is in the clear?