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MED 103: Medical Terminology

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  1. MED 103: Medical Terminology Lisa H. Young, RN, BSN, MA Ed.

  2. Elements of a Medical Terms • Roots • the constant, unchanging foundation of a medical term • usually of Greek or Latin origin • nearly all medical terms have one or more roots

  3. Elements of a Medical Terms • Combining vowel • has no meaning of its own • joins a rootto another root • joins a root to a suffix • makes a word easier to pronounce • “o” is the most common combining vowel, followed by “a”

  4. Elements of a Medical Term • Combining form • combines a rootand a combining vowel • can be attached to another root or combining form • can precede asuffix Example: enter/o

  5. Elements of a Medical Term • Identify the elements of the following word: gynecologist gynec/ -o- -logist rootcombiningsuffix vowel

  6. Greek, Latin, and Old English Words • Some medical terms do not break down (deconstruct) into word elements Examples: • Greek: toxin meaning poison • Latin: medical meaning toheal • Old English: record meaning to remember

  7. Terms That Are Alike • Many words in the medical language are very similar. Examples: • ilium and ileum • malleus and malleolus

  8. Chapter 1 Summary • Elements • prefix, root, combining vowel, combining form, and suffix • Greek, Latin, and Old English Words • Some do not break down • Terms That Are Alike • Look alike/sound alike

  9. Suffixes • Added to the end of a root/combining form • Changes the meaning of medical terms • Use of combining vowel hemat -oma= root + suffix hemat/o -logist = root + combining vowel + suffix

  10. Classification of Suffixes • Diagnostic • Diagnosis, procedure, or test • Surgical • Describes surgical procedures • Pathological • Describes a sign/symptom of a disease

  11. Classification of Suffixes • Adjectives • 28 suffixes mean pertaining to • Nouns • do not fall under any classifications • maintain the root or combining form as a noun

  12. Diagnostic Suffixes • Identify the suffixes of the following words: hematoma hemat/ -oma rootsuffix hematuria hemat/ -uria rootsuffix

  13. Surgical Suffixes • Identify the suffixes of the following word: appendectomy append/ -ectomy rootsuffix lithotripsy lith/o -tripsy combining suffix form

  14. Pathological Suffixes • Identify the suffixes of the following words: cystitis cyst/ -itis rootsuffix cyanosis cyan/ -osis rootsuffix

  15. Adjective Suffixes Suffixes meaning pertaining to: -ac cardiac pertaining to the heart -arypulmonarypertaining to the lungs -iorposteriorpertaining to the back of the body

  16. Noun Suffixes • Identify the suffixes of the following words: arteriole arteri/ -ole rootsuffix venule ven/ -ule rootsuffix

  17. Prefixes • Added to the beginning of a medical term • Change the meaning of medical terms • No use of combining vowel peri-cardium = prefix + root epi-cardium = prefix + root

  18. Position Prefixes • Identify the prefixes of the following words: epidermis epi- dermis prefix root hypodermis hypo dermis prefix root

  19. Number and Measurement Prefixes • Identify the prefixes of the following word: multipara multi- para prefix root Primipara primi- para prefix root

  20. Direction Prefixes • Identify the prefixes of the following word: antevert anti- vert prefix root synapse syn- apse prefix root

  21. Element Review • Identify the prefixes and suffixes of the following word: hypogastric hypo- / gastr / -ic prefixrootsuffix

  22. Chapter 2 Summary • Suffixes and Prefixes • Change the meaning of medical terms • Suffix • Added to the end of a root/combining form • Use of combining vowel • Prefix • Added to the beginning of a medical term

  23. Decoding Terms • CARD Method • Check for the word parts in a term • Assign meanings to the word parts • Reverse the meaning of the suffix to the front of the definition • Define the term

  24. Word Analysis, Definition & Pronounciation • Analyze the following term: endocarditis 1. suffix — itis meaning inflammation 2. prefix endo— meaning inside 3. root cardmeaning heart 4. put the terms together—inflammation of the inside of the heart

  25. Building Terms • Spelling Rules • If the suffix starts with a vowel, a combining vowel is NOT needed to join the parts arthr/o itis = arthritis • If the suffix starts with a consonant, a combining vowel IS needed to join the two word parts arthr/o + plasty = arthroplasty

  26. Building Terms • If a combining form ends with the same vowel that begins a suffix, one of the vowels is dropped Endo- + cardi/o + itis = Endocarditis • If two or more combining forms are used in a term, the combining form is retained Gastr/o + enter/0 + itis = Gastroenteritis

  27. Building Terms • When two or more combining forms are used to make a medical term, special notice must be paid to the order in which the combining forms are joined Esophag/0 + gastr/o + duoden/o + scopy = Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (joining the CF reflects the direction in which the scope travels through the body)

  28. Plurals • Singular / Plural Rules • Ends in –a add –ae vertebraae • Ends in -is add –esarthrosises • Ends in –ix or –ex add –ices appendixices • Ends in –itis add –itidesarthritisitides • Ends in –nx add –ngesphalanxnges • Ends in –um add an –a endocardiumia • Ends in –us add an –I digitusi • Ends in –y add –iesthearpyies

  29. Chapter 3 Summary • Word Analysis and Definition • break it down into its component elements • Plurals and Pronunciations • memorize the plurals of medical terms • correct pronunciation is vital • Precision in Communication http://connect.mcgraw-hill.com/connectweb/login/?&node=connectdr_3

  30. Composition of the Body • The body is composed of: - organs - tissues - cells - organelles - molecules - atoms

  31. Structure and Functions of Cells • Basic Functions of Life - manufacture - production -communication - replication -reproduction

  32. Nucleus

  33. Tissues • Primary Tissue Groups - connective - epithelial - muscle - nervous

  34. Organs & Organ Systems • Integumentary • Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glandis • Skeletal • Bones, ligaments, cartilages, tendons • Muscular • Muscles http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SSqwRkDLyH4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CBLm7rK05Yc

  35. Organs and Organ Systems • Nervous • Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organ • Endocrine • Glands that secrete hormones: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal, thymus • Cardiovascular • Heart, blood vessels

  36. Organs and Organ Systems • Lymphatic • Lymph vessels and nodes, thymus spleen • Digestive • Mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestines • Respiratory • Control intake and output of air, exchange gases between air and blood

  37. Organs and Organ Systems • Urinary • Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra • Reproductive • Male: scrotum, testes, epididymides, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, blubourethral glands, urethra, penis • Female: ovaries, uterine (fallopian) tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva

  38. Prefixes for Body Organization ana- up, apart, away cata- down en- in endo- within epi- above, upon meta- beyond, change para- neat, beside, abnormal

  39. Suffixes for Body Organizations ai, -ouspertaining to -ia, -ism condition, state of -on structure -plasmformation -some body -stasis controlling, stopping -um structure, thing, membrane -us structure

  40. Anatomical Positions, Planes, and Directions http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yuV-2WKZmSM

  41. Anatomical Planes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wBAwxZ_yxnE

  42. Positional & Directional Terms • Anteroposterior (AP) & Posteroanterior (PA) • Anterior & ventral to the front/belly side • Posterior & dorsal back of body/back • Superior & Cephaladupward/toward head • Inferior & Caudaddownward/toward tail • Medial pertaining to the middle • Lateral pertaining to the side • Ipsilateral pertaining to same side

  43. Position & Directional Terms • Contralateral pertaining to the opposite side • Unilateral pertaining to one side • Bilateral pertaining to two sides • Superficial on the surface of the body • Deep away from the surface of the body • Proximal near the origin • Distal far from the origin • Dextradtoward the right

  44. Position & Directional Terms • Sinistradtoward the left • Afferent carrying toward a structure • Efferent carrying away from structure • Supine lying on back • Prone lying on stomach

  45. Body Cavities

  46. Abdominal Regions and Quadrants http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oeFoxTi02yg

  47. Chapter 4 Summary • Organization of the Body • All the elements interact with each other • Anatomical Position, Planes, and Directions • Describe the location of anatomical structures

  48. Digestive System • Alimentary Canal Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine • Accessory Organs Teeth, Tongue, Salivary Glands, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas

  49. Functions of the Digestive System http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1h2VW8USCAA

  50. Prefixes of the Digestive System • Prefixes for the Digestive System • Endo- within • Exo- outside • Hypo- below • Par- near • Peri- surrounding • Retro- behind • Sub- under