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Teaching and Learning What’s the metaphor?. Last Week’s Metaphor. Teacher as …. Teaching is like being a talk-show host because: -you try to get people to talk -you set the topic -students are like an audience -there are elements of entertainment -you have to plan

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Teaching and Learning What’s the metaphor?

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last week s metaphor

Last Week’s Metaphor

Teacher as …

Teaching is like being a talk-show host because:

-you try to get people to talk

-you set the topic

-students are like an audience

-there are elements of entertainment

-you have to plan

-you ask a lot of questions…

a child s metaphor for the teacher the good teacher

A child’s metaphor for the teacher… the good teacher.

Teacher as…






Teacher as…








Teacher as…




Rules for Talking


Free Time

Valuable Rewards






here s a good metaphor

Here’s a Good Metaphor…

Building Students

Building Knowledge

Building Institutions

Building Society

Building a Profession

Building a Role

Building Curriculum

Building Methodologies

Building Technologies

Building Self

Building a poem.

Building a story.

Building a garden.

Building a performance.

Building a song.

Building a score.

Building a symphony.

Building a problem solver.

Building a thinker.

Building a piece of art.

Teacher as Builder

How does one go about building?

build a view of a teacher
Build a view of a teacher…
  • Children (The good teacher…)
  • Adolescents (The good teacher…)
  • Society (Purpose of schools)
  • Roles (Role of the Teacher)
role of schools
ROLE of schools…

National Post--State Of Education, Quarterly Report, September 2001



Happy People?

Good People?

Builders of the Future (i.e., parents)?

Radical change agents?

Scholars (knowledgeable inquirers)?

role of schools9
ROLE of schools…

National Post--State Of Education, Quarterly Report, September 2001

what do you consider to be the role of the teacher
What do you consider to be the ROLE of the teacher?
  • 1. Expert (You have to know how to count… “in your head”)
  • 2. Empathic Counselor/Therapist (Patient)
  • 3. Manager
what are teacher roles
What are teacher roles?
  • Instructional Expert
  • Counsellor
  • Leader
  • Manager
  • Model
  • Motivator
  • Reflective Professional
models of the learner
Models of the Learner
  • So how is the learner viewed?

It would appear that most teachers are viewing the learner as an amorphous unmotivated mass….if the teacher’s role is to motivate...

Is this what the learner is like?

to help build a model of the learner think about the best way to learn or to maximize learning
To help build a model of the learner, think about the best way to learn, or to maximize learning….

How do you learn best?

a popular notion of learning we remember
A popular notion of learning… we remember
  • 10% of what we read
  • 20% of what we hear
  • 30% of what we see
  • 50% of what we see and hear
  • 70% of what is discussed with others
  • 80% of what we experience personally
  • 95% of what we teach to another

I personally would place reading higher on the list—say 55+%.

who learns the most
Who learns the most?

About lecturing:

--the listener?

--the speaker?


--the teacher?

--the student?


--the sharer?

--the receiver?


--the entertainer?

--the audience?


models of the learner17
Models Of The Learner…

Check WEB Site for Models of Learnersand Models of Instruction

1 tabula rasa model
1. Tabula Rasa Model
  • Latin for “blank slate”
    • the “empty vessel” metaphor
  • equal at birth
  • experience writes its message
  • experience accounts for differences
  • e.g., Skinner and the behaviourists
2 hypothesis generator
2. Hypothesis Generator
  • Not just experience
  • We are characterized by intentionality:

-we choose experiences

-we generate hypotheses

-we interpret experiences

(in terms of our notions about the world)

  • e.g., Hull
3 nativism model
3. Nativism Model
  • The mind has built-in
    • Constraints and
    • Capabilities
  • “hard-wired” to learn certain things
    • imprinting (of goslings is pre-wired)
    • language (LAD) –pre-programmed to learn language
    • social behaviours (sociobiologists—social behaviours that are genetically pre-programmed)

e.g., Lorenz, Chomsky,

4 constructivist model
4. Constructivist Model
  • Learner constructs his/her world
  • Learner is a builder of knowledge
  • Learner progressively discovers rules

-that govern relationships

-for abstracting significance

-for generating concepts

the constructivist learner
The Constructivist Learner
  • The constructivist learner is:

-self motivated

-mastery oriented

-driven by needs

to know

to organize

to understand

to build meaning

  • e.g., Bruner and Piaget
5 novice to expert
5. Novice-to-Expert
  • practical
  • learners move from novices to experts
  • based on analyses of novices and experts
  • evident in information processing approaches
  • e.g., Rummelhart, Lindsay, Norman
which model is evident here
Which model is evident here?
  • 1.

Telling a story…

the teaching process somewhat traditional
The Teaching Process(Somewhat Traditional)
  • Drill
  • Direct Instruction
  • Telling
  • The “Mug & Jug” Model
the teaching process somewhat contemporary
The Teaching Process(Somewhat Contemporary)
  • Guided Discovery
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Student Centered Learning
  • A “Constructivist” Model
constructivist trends
Constructivist Trends
  • Authentic Learning/Assessment
  • Messy Problems/Real Problems
  • Implicit Instruction
  • Apprenticing
  • Student empowerment
  • Teacher as “Guide on the side”
  • Collaborative/Co-operative learning


Teacher as Builder

  • Teacher as orchestra conductor
  • What does an orchestra conductor build?
  • How does an orchestra conductor operate?
  • If this was the metaphor that informed your teaching what would the following look like:
    • Your teaching?
    • Your classroom?
    • Your students?

You are not teaching music. You are treating all curriculum metaphorically, like music, and all classes (math, science, history, art, reading, etc.) like an orchestra.


Metaphor: Teacher as Orchestra ConductorIf you were approaching your class much like an orchestra conductor approaches the orchestra, what might your class and teaching look like?Examples of questions to think about…

  • …How does an orchestra conductor give assignments?
  • What is the nature of these assignments?
  • How does the orchestra conductor introduce new material?
  • What rules would an orchestra conductor establish for behaviour in the classroom?
  • What kind of learningactivities does an orchestra conductor use or plan to use?
  • How does an orchestra conductor assess student performance?
  • What might the lesson plans of an orchestra conductor look like?
  • What kinds of teaching aids might an orchestra conductor use?
  • What might an orchestra conductor communicate to a student’s parents?
  • How would the room be arranged?
  • What would homework be like?
  • What model-of-the-learner would be most prominent?
  • What roles of the teacher would be most prominent? Least prominent?
  • What purpose of school would be most prominent? Least prominent?
  • What is being constructed or built?


an orchestra conductor is a builder
An Orchestra Conductor is a Builder

-Building a musician

-Building a section

-Building a team

-Building a performance

Hand in the answers your group came up with in response to this metaphor. Make sure the names (first and last) of group participants are listed at the top of the page. Make sure they are legible.

teacher as researcher
Teacher as researcher


  • Person MetaphorsInstitution Metaphors
  • Teacher as Sergeant Military
  • Teacher as Aerobics Instructor Gym
  • Teacher as Coach Team
  • Teacher as Gardener Garden
  • Teacher as Zookeeper Zoo
  • Teacher as Nature Trail Guide Nature
  • Teacher as Tour Guide Foreign City
  • Teacher as Architect Building
  • Teacher as Medical Practitioner Hospital
  • Teacher as Politician Parliament
  • Teacher as Orchestra Conductor Stage
  • Teacher as Researcher Lab
building music
Building Music
  • Rap