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Study Guide: Egypt and Kush. What was the geographic location and noteworthy physical features of ancient Egypt ?. Egypt was the Gift of the Nile ( longest river in world) located in NE Africa: had protective cataracts, and a fertile delta The Nile flows south to north.

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Egypt was the Gift of the Nile ( longest river in world)located in NE Africa: had protective cataracts, and a fertile deltaThe Nile flows south to north

slide4

Nile floods on a regular cycle: upper Egypt in mid summer, lower Egypt in fall2/3 of farmland is in the delta area; desert surrounds other land

desert too harsh for enemies med sea kept many away cataracts stopped enemies from south
Desert too harsh for enemies, Med Sea kept many away, cataracts stopped enemies from south
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Rich fertile land gave rise to farming, surplus, diversification of labor, greater pop, control of river water with canals; with larger population organized govt developed and a shared and well developed culture was seen.

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What were the important cultural features of the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Kingdoms of ancient Egypt ?
slide14
Old: govt developed pharaohs as both King and a god- he came to earth to manage Egypt for all the gods

Khfu best known because of monuments for him(pyramid)

Society: Pharoah, priests and govt officials (mostly nobles, rich and powerful families)

Middle Class = scribes and craftspeople, lesser govt officials;Lower Class – 80% people and mostly farmers – worked on pharaoh projects in off season. Slaves and servants

Trade with Nubia and Suria – materials for building

Religion: all worship same gods, tons of them too, temples built and they collected $ from worshippers and govt.

Pyramids as burial sites very important

Idea of afterlife important

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Middle: time after a decline of pharaoh power with nobles ruling but ineffectively –pharaoh comes back into power; invaded by Hykos – they rule, but Ahmose drives them out

new kingdom height of power
New Kingdom: height of power

Controlled invasion routes, built an empire ; extended from Euphraetes to Nubia – those neighboring send gifts to maintain good relations.

Expanded trade

Queen Hatshepsut – trade and monuments and temples

Invasions led to decline

Ramses the Great fought off many enemies

Labor: scribes, artisans, artists, architects, merchants, traders, soldiers, farmers and peasants

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Khufu – pyramid

  • Hatsheput – increased trade
  • Ramses – fought invasions, massive monuments
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Menes: unites Upper and Lower Egypt – from Upper; 1st Pharaoh, and first dynasty; extended territory south
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Many gods, afterlife

Ka must be preserved

scribes
Scribes

govt and temple records

b artisans artists and architects
B. Artisans, Artists, and Architects

1. sculptors builders, carpenters, jewelers

metalworkers and leatherworkers

2. statues, furniture, jewelry, pottery, shoes

3. architects designed temples and royal tombs

a. could become high govt officials

c merchants and traders
C. Merchants and Traders

1. few, accompanied by soldiers, scribes and

laborers

d soldiers
D. Soldiers

1. After Middle Kingdom wars E had professional

army

2. land as payment

3. keep treasure captured in warj

e farmers and other peasants
E. Farmers and Other Peasants

1. bottom of social scale

2. majority of pop

3. crops as taxes to pharaoh to pay for land use

a. pharaohs controlled all land in kingdom

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4. required for special duty too

a. soldier

b. projects

c. mining

d. paid in grain

F. Slaves

1. most equal to farmers

2. convicted criminals

3. pows

4. projects, farms, workshops , households

5. had some rights and could earn freedom

in some cases

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Arch

Hieroglyphics

Papyrus

Books and histories written

Temples, sphinx

Painting – profile and straight on

Carvings and jewelry

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Located along a river whose flood brought silt and fertile land to farm ( Nile)

Cataracts were natural barrier

Rose from farming villages

Diversification of labor

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What were the political, commercial and cultural relations interactions and influences between Kush and Egypt ?
slide36
Kush supplied slaves and raw materials to Egypt

Egypt controls when Thumose invades

Kush then controls Egypt – but reestablishes much of Egyptian culture

Kush defeated by Assyrians in Egypt

Kush rebuilt own civilization built iron industry, expanded trade, very much in Egyptian stlye ; resources declined, trade weakened, military weakened lead to decline