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  1. Emerging Trends In TechnicalEducation- Future Challenges St. Vincent Palloti College of Engineering and Technology Nagpur 24 th July 2005 Prof. M. U. Deshpande Kanwal Rekhi School of Information Technology Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  2. Electrification Automobile Airplane Water Supply Electronics Radio TV Agriculture Mechanization Computers Telephone Air conditioner & Refrigeration Highways Spacecraft Internet Imaging Household Appliances Health Technology Petroleum/Petrochemicals Laser & Fibre Optics Nuclear Technology High performance materials Greatest Achievements: 20th Century Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  3. Global Higher Education Trillion Dollar today MIT alone has annual budget of $ 1+ Billion; Tutgers 1.5 Billion Growing fast thanks to knowledge economy Major US Institutions opening up campuses around the world (may even be in India after 2005) Australia with laser sharp focus is reaping the benefits in India & China Interesting numbers – 65,000 Indian students to USA, 65,000 to rest of the world (2002) with $ 30K per student is 3+ Billion dollars of “lost opportunity” Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  4. Indian Higher Education A million students in engineering alone Except a handful of Institutions many do not have a “mind share” and naturally no “market share” Public Private partnership is the viable model Too much central control makes them not play the card well; not striving towards excellence; “output” control lacking but full of “input” control; many weak institutions are not allowed to “die”; we need to grow still; not a single world-scale Institution Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  5. Opportunities for Indian Higher Education Can be “guru” to the world; world’s education hub; teaching back office; Software industry success “trio” (Q+Q+E) applies to higher education too Need to act quickly At least start with IT Education; extend to others (software industry started with core software; today extends to ITES, Design, Publishing, Medicine ….) Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  6. Technical Education • Key Societal Enabler • Able and Competent Human Resource crucial National Asset • Prime Factor of Production in Modern Economy • Quality pre requisite for global competition/massive expansion/fast changing needs scenario Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  7. Quality Assessment Initiatives • Relative Recent Phenomenon • Origin in Mass Manufacturing of Consumer goods • Minimum Variance (SPC) • Least defects • Customer perception/expectation CONFORMANCE – ADAPTABILITY – INNOVATION Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  8. Can Quality be Quantified? • Excites strong emotions • Subjectivity – Objectivity • Measurement’s importance • Sensory perceptions Sight/Sound/Taste/Touch/Smell/IQ-EQ • Issue is consistency and reliability amenability to mass application. Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  9. Depth of course work Applications/Seat Alumni Achievements Library/BW Reputation/Placement R&D Papers/Patents Staff Student Ratio Pass Ratio Endowments Laboratories Faculty Quality etc. Globally Used Quality Indices for Academic Institutions Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  10. Good Features of Quality Systems • Assessment: Multidimensional several measurable aspects • Achievements: Of majority faculty students • Indices: Per capita not of aggregate groups or cumulative • Outcome Indicators: Student learning added competence • VALIDATION: BY USERS / PEERS Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  11. Dale’s Cone of Experience People Generally Remember People are able to: (Learning Outcomes) 10% of what they read Read *Define *Describe *List *Explain 20% of what they hear Hear ViewImages 30% of what they see • Demonstrate • Apply • Practice Watch Videos 50% of what they hear and see VisitExhibit/Sites Watch a Demonstration 70% of what they say and write • Analyze • Design • Create • Evaluate Design Collaborative Lesson Participate in Hands-on Activity 90% of what They say as They do a thing Simulate, Model or Experience Design/perform a Presentation Do “the real thing” Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  12. Establishing New Learning EnvironmentsTraditional --- Incorporating --- New Environment New Strategies Teacher-centered instruction  Learner – centered environments Single sense stimulation  Multisensory stimulation Single path progression  Multipath progression Single Media  Multimedia Isolated Work  Collaborative work Information Delivery  Information exchange Passive learning  Active/exploratory/inquiry based learning Factual/literal thinking  Critical thinking, informed decision making Reactive response  Proactive/planned action Isolated, artificial context  authentic, real world context Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  13. Teaching Learning Process • Synergy of: – Faculty - Students - Infrastructure - DEP / Institution • NBA Focus on Process: • Academic calendar • Syllabi Delivery • Evaluation Systems • Info access • Enablers of faculty/student initiatives Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  14. Student Quality • Number of application/seat • Diverse background • Time to complete degree • Quality of practical training/Projects • Placement and Initial Salaries • No taking GATE / PG Courses • Alumni reputation/entrepreneurs • Foreign students Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  15. Faculty Quality Indicators • Number of applications/position • Publications, awards, patents • Sponsored projects/consultancy • Retention/turnover • Teaching Quality Innovations • Public service • Industry Exposures • Career satisfaction levels Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  16. Institutional Quality • Strategic Planning • Interaction with Industry/Govt. • Resource Mobilization for better facilities • R&D and Training programs held • Interdisciplinary Initiatives • Perceived reputation • Student acceptability in Global Market Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  17. Technology Status • Support services for catering to large student groups • Faculty and student access to World knowledge and Best Practices • Service to society through Faculty expertise, Annual reports • Active well maintained public image through Website and Links • Quality practices in house ISO/Six Sigma Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  18. Teaching Process Fundamental: • Classroom dynamics • Processes and services to promote • Student Comprehension • Recall • Critical Thinking • Imaging Import /systems - Documentation - Graphics - Graphing - Multimedia • ICT Technologies • Better Education • Cost Effective • Value adding for average student Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  19. Technology in Teaching & Learning Integration widely desired but difficult without pervasive preparation. Ownership by faculty/students/managements. Only few enthusiastic individuals will not ensure sustainability. Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  20. 3 Keys to Technology Planning & Management • Encourage and train faculty – critical mass • Support student productivity – learning efficiency • Technology integrated curriculum Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  21. Directions of Organized Education Engineering courses to move towards • Course-credit / modular structure • Elective in senior years • Broad base to courses rather than narrow specialization • Emphasis on hands-on practical work • Developing personality & enterprise Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  22. Student Awareness Rucksack • Team working requirements • Communication & interpersonal skills • Standards unified/International EURO/ISO/SI/TQM • Personal Management • Change • Flexibility & Adaptability • Ability to work any time/place/site • Life long learning • Plan develop & execute career trajectory Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  23. Holistic Engineering Practice • Systems thinking • Inductive, integrative life cycle management • Critical thinking (extension of knowledge) • Learning to do good • Sustainable/appropriate/safe designs & process • Innovation coupled to world market place • Political/environment/human issues with technical Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  24. Paradigms in Laboratory Work in Engineering Education • Basic Nature and Purpose • What should change • What should remain • Benchmarks • Human and Financial Resources • For instruction and assessment • For certification testing and R&D • Management Structures Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  25. Quality and Cost Concerns • Huge expansion of Technical Education • Lab provisions grossly inadequate • Misleading assessment in Practical marks • Expensive equipments and need for duplication • Cost centers/no resource generation • Staff – low quality high cost Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  26. Nature and Purpose of Lab Work • Essential Scaffolding to evolving learning structure • Reinforcement of Theory “concepts” • Awareness of Modeling the Abstract • To affirm on cause-effect relationship • Skill in measurements of physical variables Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  27. Measurements in Science & Technology Lord Kelvin: When you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers, you know something, …… McNamara Fallacy: We tend to give too much importance to what is measurable rather than trying to measure the important …… Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  28. Laboratory Provision in Engineering Curriculum International Accreditation Criteria, ABET Graduate to demonstrate ability • To design and construct experiment • Use tools of modern Engineering for Engineering practice Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  29. Categories of Lab Work • Curriculum support (UG) • Analytical Instrumentation • For exploration in state of Art Technologies • Research Lab for work in leading edge technologies • Testing, calibration, maintenance To ensure reliability and sustainability Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  30. Difficulties in Implementation Large number of students and batches Batch size 15-20 Two supervisors Ensuring Learning / avoidance of harm Insistence of daytime learning Time table management difficult Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  31. Opportunities in Third Party Testing • Testing of components, products & systems • Conformance to standards / calibration • Laboratory accreditation NABL • Professional management qualified staff • Quality assurance systems in Lab Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  32. Use of Technology in Lab Work • Audio video clips of working experiments commentary by Faculty • Software simulation • But context of Real World needs to be brought out • Safety and harm avoidance aspects • Database of standards / best practices Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  33. Accreditation Abroad (contd.) • ECPD  ABET 1980 for Engineering programs. Computer Science Accreditation Board – 1984 • CSAB merged in ABET 2001 • Engineering council in UK, IEE / ICE, ImechE. Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  34. Accreditation Abroad Education Accreditation more than a century old • Oldest accreditation of Engineering program U.S. 1932 ECPD • Accredited qualification as Prerequisite of Professional License to practice. Hence controlled by professional societies. Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  35. Washington Accord Accreditation Agencies of Developed World agreement for recognition of accredited program in respective countries for License to Professional Practice Original Six USA, Canada, UK, Ireland, Australia, Newzeland Now added: RSA, Hongkong Provisional Signatory Status Japan, Singapore, Germany, Malaysia India applicant - Team visiting January 2005 Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  36. Washington Accord (Contd.) • Only UG Degree programs covered • Ready acceptance of respective country’s academic requirements for entry to practice of profession of Engineering. Covers Quality Assurance of online and web based instruction and programs Imported/exported . Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  37. GATE – Global Alliance for Transnational Education - 1996 Private Multinational Industry Initiative looking for qualified manpower from developing countries. Originally founded by Jones International, joined later by Coca cola, Ericsson etc. Center for Quality Assurance in International Education Washington DC Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  38. Sample ABET – Outcome for Engineering Students • Ability to apply knowledge of Maths, Science and Engineering • Ability to design and conduct expert and analyze and interpret data • Ability to design a system component or process to meet desired needs Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  39. Sample ABET – Outcome for Engineering Students (contd.) Additionals from 2005 onwards • Broad general education to understand impact of Engineering solutions on society and globe • Life long learning ability • Knowledge of contemporary issues • Ability to use technics, skills and modern engineering tools for engineering practice. Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  40. Sample ABET – Outcome for Engineering Students (contd.) Additionals from 2005 onwards • Ability to function on multi disc team • Ability to identify, formulate and solve engineering problems • Understanding a professional and ethical responsibilities • Ability to communicate effectively Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  41. Sample ABET – Outcome for Engineering Students (contd.) Program to possess assessment process with documented results. Also evidence that these results are used to further develop and improve the program. Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  42. Boundaryless Careers Globalization and Economic restructuring Traditional concepts of career affected How to survive without job for life No roadmap to guide firm’s fortune and employee status or place in society No stable organizational & occupational structures Personal initiative and mutual cooperation Agency and communion manage own arrangements of working with others. Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  43. Silicon Valley Boundarylessness – Key advantage Individualistic open labour market Dynamic Industry demanding Constant innovation Needs knowledge sharing. Delicate balance sharing between cooperation and competition Hewlet of HP – If you want to succeed here you must be willing – to change jobs often • talk to your competitors • Take risk, even if it leads to failure Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  44. Boundaryless Careers Employees identify with their profession and not their companies. Job changing norms – Average 2-3 years 35% turn over A colleague – Customer Boss – Subordinate Respect and authority through competence Technical excellence and market share highest regards – successful entrepreneurs Key to success – Continuous learning through relationships Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  45. Silicon Valley Collective actions • Mutual interest • Intellectual curiosity • Problem solving leading to Developing • New Markets • New Technologies • Products/applications People rub shoulders/share ideas Social interaction replaces hierarchy central planning Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB

  46. Thank you. Prof. M.U. Deshpande, IITB