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cosmic The real voyage is not to travel to new landscapes, but to see with new eyes. . . Marcel Proust francis halzen university of wisconsin http://icecube.wisc.edu rays 2007 energy (eV ) / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / n CMB Radio Visible

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the real voyage is not to travel to new landscapes but to see with new eyes marcel proust

cosmic

The real voyage is not to travel to new landscapes, but to see with new eyes. . .Marcel Proust

francis halzen

university of wisconsin

http://icecube.wisc.edu

rays 2007

slide2

energy (eV)

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

n

CMB

Radio

Visible

TeV sources!

flux

cosmic

rays

GeV g-rays

multi messenger astronomy
multi-messenger astronomy

protons, g-rays, neutrinos, gravitational waves as

probes of the high-energy Universe

protons: directions scrambled by magnetic fields

g-rays: straight-line propagation but

  • reprocessed in the sources, extragalactic
  • backgrounds absorbEg> TeV

neutrinos: straight-line propagation,

  • unabsorbed, but difficult to detect

slide5

protons ?

TeV gammas ?

neutrinos ?

Crab supernova remnant

progress through instrumentation
progress through instrumentation
  • Auger
  • HESS, Magic, Veritas, Milagro …
  • IceCube and KM3NeT
slide9

the atmosphere as

a particle detector

Cherenkov

light

shower

electrons

and muons

neutrinos

slide10

combine two succesful

techniques

  • fluorescence eye with
  • active photodetectors
  • (HiRes)
  • ground array of particle detectors
  • (AGASA)
progress through instrumentation13
progress through instrumentation
  • Auger
  • HESS, Magic, Veritas, Milagro …
  • IceCube and KM3NeT
slide14

high-energy gamma-rays

TeV gamma ray astronomy

  • a cosmic photon
  • initiates an
  • electromagnetic
  • shower high in
  • the atmosphere
  • the shower
  • particles emit
  • Cherenkov
  • radiation
  • this radiation is
  • captured by
  • mirrors read out
  • by a cluster of
  • photomultipliers

effective area:

104m2

 8 km

Cherenkov light

120 m

progress through instrumentation15
progress through instrumentation
  • Auger
  • HESS, Magic, Veritas, Milagro …
  • IceCube and KM3NeT
slide16

detector

neutrino travels

through the earth

slide18

detector

neutrino travels

through the earth

slide19

infrequently, a cosmic neutrino

crashes into an atom in the ice

and produces a nuclear reaction

muon

nuclearreaction

detector

neutrino travels

through the earth

slide20

infrequently, a cosmic neutrino

crashes into an atom in the ice

and produces a nuclear reaction

  • infrequently, a cosmic neutrino

crashes into an atom in the ice

and produces a nuclear reaction

  • muon travels kilometers in the ice

muon

nuclearreaction

detector

neutrino travels

through the earth

slide21

infrequently, a cosmic neutrino

crashes into an atom in the ice

and produces a nuclear reaction

  • infrequently, a cosmic neutrino

crashes into an atom in the ice

and produces a nuclear reaction

  • muon travels kilometers in the ice

muon

nuclearreaction

detector

  • blue light produced in nuclear reaction

neutrino

  • optical sensors capture (and map) the light
slide23

photomultiplier

starts its journey

to 2500 m

the IceCube project transforms

a billion tons of ice into a particle physics detector

slide26

IceCube construction

  • 1 million pounds of cargo
  • C-130 planes: > 50 flights
icecube site
IceCube Site

5 megawatt power plant

slide30

cosmic rays

  • Nature accelerates particles 10 7 times the energy of LHC!
  • where?
  • how?

~E-2.7

knee

1 part m-2 yr-1

~E-3

ankle

1 part km-2 yr-1

~E-2.7

LHC

slide32

yes, there

is a GZK

feature

solar flare shock acceleration
solar flare shock acceleration

coronal mass

ejection

10 GeV

particles

slide35

acceleration to108 TeV?

~102 Joules

~ 0.01 MGUT

  • dense regions with exceptional
  • gravitational force creating relativistic
  • flows of charged particles, e.g.
    • dense cores of exploding stars
    • supermassive black holes
    • merging galaxies
slide37

Rotationsakse

pulsar

Straling

Magnetfelt

Straling

slide38

active galaxy

supermassive

supermassive

black hole

black hole

accretion disk

jet

slide39

Georges Lemaitre

believed that cosmic

rays where primordial

radiation from the

Big Bang

young supernova remnants
young supernova remnants
  • when a star collapses one solar mass of

energy is released, mostly in neutrinos

  • the remaining 1% is dumped into the

interstellar medium

  • the expanding shock sweeps up particles

like a snowplough and creates regions of

high particle densities and magnetic

fields where 10% of the energy is

converted into the acceleration of cosmic rays

slide42

Cas A supernova remnant in X-rays

shock fronts

Fermi acceleration when

particles cross

high B-fields

cosmic rays snrs
Cosmic Rays & SNRs

observed energy density of galactic CR:

~ 10-12 erg/cm3

galactic

Supernova Remnants:

1050 ergs every 30 years

~10-12 erg/cm3

SNRs provide the environment and energy

to explain the galactic cosmic rays!

cosmic rays grbs

Extragalactic

Cosmic Rays & GRBs

observed energy density of extragalactic CR:

~ 1044 ergs/yr/Mpc3

Gamma-Ray Bursts:

1051 ergs x 300/yr/Gpc3

~ 1044 ergs/yr/Mpc3

GRBs provide environment and energy

to explain the extragalactic cosmic rays!

cosmic rays snrs47
Cosmic Rays & SNRs

observed energy density of galactic CR:

~ 10-12 erg/cm3

galactic

Supernova Remnants:

1050 ergs every 30 years

~10-12 erg/cm3

SNRs provide the environment and energy

to explain the galactic cosmic rays!

energy in extra galactic cosmic rays 3x10 19 erg cm 3 or 10 44 erg yr per mpc 3 for 10 10 years
 energy in extra-galactic cosmic rays :~ 3x10-19 erg/cm3or ~ 1044 erg/yr per (Mpc)3 for 1010 years

3x1044 erg/s per active galaxy !!!

2x1051 erg per gamma ray burst

 energy in cosmic rays ~ equal to

the energy in light !

1 TeV = 1.6 erg

slide49

Neutrino Beams: Heaven & Earth

NEUTRINO BEAMS: HEAVEN & EARTH

Black Hole

Radiation

Enveloping

Black Hole

p + g -> n + p+

~ cosmic ray + neutrino

->p + p0

~ cosmic ray + gamma

energy in extra galactic cosmic rays 3x10 19 erg cm 3 or 10 44 erg yr per mpc 3 for 10 10 years50
 energy in extra-galactic cosmic rays :~ 3x10-19 erg/cm3or ~ 1044 erg/yr per (Mpc)3 for 1010 years

3x1044 erg/s per active galaxy

2x1052 erg per gamma ray burst

 energy in

cosmic rays ~ photons ~ neutrinos

slide51

Full IceCube, 1 year

diffuse muon neutrino flux

MPR

bound

100 - 500 events

per km2year

WB

HBL blazars

slide53

supernova

beam

dump

RX J1713-3946

hess rx j1713 spectrum
HESS: RX J1713 Spectrum

18 h 2003 data

  • first resolved
  • image of
  • supernova
  • remnant
  • in TeV photons
  • (theoretical)
  • evidence for
  • the acceleration
  • of protons at
  • the level
  • required to
  • explain
  • galactic cosmic
  • rays
slide55

 the accelerator

TeV photons trace the density of the molecular clouds

galactic plane
galactic plane

90°

65°

30°

210°

Southern

Hemisphere

Sky

Standard Deviations

slide57

beam dump converts

protons in n and g

p

g

e

m

p-

p0

p+

g

g

n m+

n m-

e+ e-

e+

g

e-

m+

e+

g

n

e+

ne

slide58

cygnus region : Milagro and Tibet

Milagro

contours are pion model with no sources

crosses are EGRET unidentified sources

TeV/matter correlation

chance noncorrelation

1.5x10-6

3 ± 1 neutrinos in IceCube per source

slide60

shielded and optically

  • transparent medium

m

n

  • lattice of photomultipliers
antares layout

from DUMAND to ANTARES ( via lake Baikal )

ANTARES Layout
  • 12 lines
  • 25 storeys / line
  • 3 PMT / storey

14.5 m

350 m

Junction

box

100 m

40 km to

shore

~60-75 m

Readout cables

slide64

Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station

Where are we ?

runway

South Pole

AMANDA-II

slide65

AMANDAEvent

Signatures:Muons

muon neutrino

interaction  track

nm + N  m +X

slide66

IceCube

event

22 strings

slide67

AMANDAII2000

1555 Events

slide68

AMANDA skyplot 2000-2003

3369 events

below horizon

search for clusters of events in the northern sky
search for clusters of events in the Northern sky

SensitivityFn/Fg~2

for 200 days of “high-state” and spectral results from HEGRA

Crab Nebula: MC probability to obtain an entry with at least this excess significance is 64%

… out of 33 sources

slide70

first IceCube sky

  • 2005 data
  • 887 events
  • above 10 degrees
  • 2006 unblinded
slide71

Flux of

TeV photons

(arb. units)

3

2

1

0

2000

2001

2002

2003

Year

May

June

July

need a larger

detector

Arrival time of the neutrinos from the direction of

ES1959+650 detected by AMANDA

gamma-rays detected by TeV gamma telescopes

atmospheric neutrinos
atmospheric neutrinos

cosmic ray

π+

+

e+



e



≈15 Km

slide75

atmospheric neutrinos up to 100 TeV

detector measures the atmospheric neutrino

flux predicted: method validated

icecube deployments

78

2006-2007: 13 strings

74

73

72

67

66

65

59

2005-2006: 8 strings

58

57

56

2004-2005 : 1 string

50

49

48

47

46

40

39

38

30

29

21

IceCube deployments

Counting house: commissioned in January 2007

  • Completion 2011 :
  • 80 strings 60 modules each
  • 17m between modules
  • 125m between strings
  • 1 km³ ; ~1GTon
  • 1997optical modules in ice:
  • AMANDA 677
  • IceCube 1320
slide77

background:

downgoing cosmic

ray muons

600 per second

signal:

upgoing muons

initiated by

neutrinos

1 per hour

icecube particle physics with one million atmospheric neutrinos
IceCube : particle physics withone million atmospheric neutrinos

Bigger and better:

also energy measurement, flavor identification …

Physics:

measurement of the high-energy neutrino cross section

TeV-scale gravity, quantum decoherence

physics beyond 3-flavor oscillations

test special and general relativity with new precision

search for magnetic monopoles

search for neutralino (or other) dark matter

search for non-standard model neutrino interactions

icecube
IceCube
  • in the next 10 years IceCube will observe

~ 106 neutrinos with energies 0.1—1,000 TeV

~ 10 neutrinos with energy > 106 TeV

made in the interactions of cosmic rays with

the Earth’s atmosphere and microwave photons.

  • with m~0.01 eV and E~100 TeV

the Lorenz factor of the neutrino is

25 m

45 m

slide83

violation of Lorentz invariance may be a tool to study Planck scale physics

 interaction with Planck mass particles distort spacetime

 Planck scale vacuum fluctuations probed by high energy neutrinos

modification to dispersion relation leads to an energy dependent speed of light.

lorentz violation d e vs d t
Lorentz violation: DE vs Dt

violation of Lorentz invariance because of Planck scale physics can be detected through time delays of high energy neutrinos relative to low energy photons

from a source at a distance d; for instance a GRB.

2005 2006 2007 deployments
2005, 2006, 2007 deployments

AMANDA

a km squared year

data by 08~09

IceCube string and IceTop station deployed 01/05

IceCube string and IceTop station deployed 12/05 – 01/06

data from completed

Antares detector

 KM3NeT

IceTop station only 2006

IceCube string and IceTop station to be deployed 12/06 – 01/07

more data from Auger, HESS,

  • 604 DOMs deployed to date
  • Want to achieve steady state of 14 strings / season.