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Socialisation of the Primary School Child Into a Physically Active Lifestyle A Population Study Lifestyle Research encompasses the relationship between person and environment Epidemiology examines causal relationships Research Focus

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Socialisation of the Primary School Child Into a Physically Active Lifestyle A Population Study


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slide2

LifestyleResearch encompasses the relationship between person and environment

Epidemiology examines causal relationships

research focus
Research Focus
  • To increase understanding of lifestyle and health behaviour and its social context in the lives of young people
  • The primary research approach is not epidemiological, but does not exclude the possibility of findings relevant to epidemiology
research framework
Research Framework
  • Physical activity behaviour is a complex interweaving of biological, social, psycho-social and cultural threads
  • Framework developed from the hypothesised relationship between personal and social variables, physical activity and health
slide5

Socio-cultural

Factors

Biobehavioural

Health & Well-being Status

Genotype

Gender

Social Integration

Socio-economic Status

Parental Influence

Primary Education

Physical

Activity

Health

well-being

Media influence

Psychological

Factors

Environment

Motivation

Knowledge

Self Perception

Attitude

Geographic Location

Community Facilities

TV Viewing Time

Season/Climate

research questions
Research Questions
  • What factors are significantly related to PA ?
  • What are ‘determinants’ / predictor variables ?
  • Is the primary school experience associated with physical activity outside of school ?
  • What are the activity patterns of Irish preadolescents ?
study population and sample
Study Population and Sample

Population

5th and 6th class pupils

Equivalent age cohort 11-12 years (+/- 1)

Sample Size

Total: 1602 792 boys

810 girls

Sampling Unit

One class: 5th or 6th

Schools < 4 teachers: 5th and 6th combined

Sampling area

13 counties dispersed: Leinster, Munster, Connacht

sampling gender and denominational status
Sampling : gender and denominational status

Sample of Schools 62

Girls only schools 17

Boys only schools 14

Co-ed schools 31

Roman Catholic 95 %

Church of Ireland 5 %

survey method
Survey Method

Researcher administered questionnaire

- 45-60 minute interview

- consistency of approach to recording data

  • Social desirability must be anticipated in health behaviour studies.
  • Reporting of the right response is suggested to arise in the school classroom context of research(Parke, 1996)
  • Desirability bias not observed in response of Primary School pupils  
slide10

Demographic ProfileNational pop. ratio urban/rural (CSO,1997) 58 : 42 Sample population ratio 60 : 40

Percentage of pupils by school location

City 30%

Town 30%

Village 36%

Rural 4%

percentage of children in designated areas of disadvantage
Percentage of children in designated areas of disadvantage
  • 9% of schools registered under Designated Areas of Disadvantage scheme
  • Predominance in Dublin, Cork and Limerick
  • 61% of all disadvantaged pupils live in rural areas population < 10,000

Report on Educational Disadvantage (1995)

social class
Social Class
  • Difficulty with coding of children’s responses
  • Re-classified from 6 –pt scale into 2 groups
  • 46% of pupils in higher social classes
  • 54% of pupils in lower classes (incl.unemployed)
measure of independent variable
Measure of independent variable

Physical activity index (constructed from the sum of…)

Frequency x MET value of activity (selection of 33 activities)

X age-adjusted value 1.13

X 0.5 (30 minutes approx)

MVPA accepted as activity > 4.25 METS

Index included mild to moderate PA

  • long-termhealth benefits to be derived from this level of intensity
  • Intensity at which much of child’s PA is performed (Armstrong.N 1990)
measures of dependent variables
Measures of dependent variables

Primary PE index (index constructed from aggregate of…)

  • Frequency of PE
  • Experience of subject areas (none / some / lots of)
  • Attitude to PE classes
  • Participant status (school team / school club)
social environment
Social environment

Social Integration Status

6-item balanced rating scale

e.g.how often do you feel lonely ? (very often / sometimes / never)

Index range 5 – 18

Parental Support Index (aggregate of 3 measures)

parent encouragement

parent role-modelling

participation with family

measures of psychological variables
Measures of psychological variables

Motivation [7-item list of motives]

e.g. …to be like a sports star

circle “ very important / important / not important at all ”

Physical self-perception

Physical subscale of the Perceived Competence Scale

for Children [Structured alternative format]

Example

Some children are good at allsports Other children are good at one or two sports

Really true for me Sort of true for meSort of true for me Really true for me

  

health and well being status
Health and Well-Being Status

Aggregate of…

  • Symptom subscale of the malaise inventory
  • 6 item well-being scale

lower score indicates the more positive health status

results physical activity index
Results: Physical Activity Index
  • Index range 0 – 282 (1.75% outliers)
  • Mean: 82.03 Boys 82.07 Girls 66.18
  • Significant decline in girls PA from 5th to 6th class
  • Test for distribution normality (K-S z = 0.064, p =.000)
  • Cases sorted into 4 activity groups

low activity / moderate-low / moderate-high / highly active

Criterion for low activity =

1 period vigorous intensity activity per week (scores <10)

Cases >10 systematically sorted into 3 groups

distribution of physical activity index in 1600 children
Distribution of physical activity index in 1600 children

200

100

y

c

n

e

u

Std. Dev = 43.09

q

e

Mean = 74.0

r

F

N = 1600.00

0

0

2

4

6

8

1

1

1

1

1

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Physical Activity Index

There were 28 outside values (> 188) in distribution of the index, representing 1.75% of cases

box plots of pai by gender
Box-plots of PAI by gender

outliers and extreme values

400

400

300

300

469

469

219

219

749

749

511

511

1085

1085

963

963

1093

1093

1003

1003

1184

1184

829

829

508

508

985

1095

1095

985

346

346

205

205

200

200

347

340

347

340

76

76

418

418

484

55

55

484

283

283

191

191

1083

1083

454

454

746

746

100

100

s

s

median

e

e

u

u

l

l

a

a

v

v

I

I

A

A

P

P

0

0

d

d

e

e

d

d

o

o

c

c

e

e

r

r

-

-

100

100

N =

N =

790

790

810

810

Boy

Boy

Girl

Girl

Respondent gender

Respondent gender

slide21

Confines of playground activity

no skipping

40%of children disallowed 1 activity option

10 % disallowed 2 options

6 % confined to ‘walking or standing around’.

Only 45% had unlimited opportunities for activity.

slide29
Children who are highly integrated in their social network are more active that those who have less contact with friends and/or those who have difficulty relating to others
  • Competing hypothesis may also be true: greater involvement in PA may lead to increased social integration
  • Association between PEI, PA and social integration suggests a feedback type mechanism
slide32

Health and well-being status

________________________________

Social desirability bias was not evidenced in 11-12 year old children’s response to health and well-being questions.. Distribution of scores shows that the clustering occurs at the lower end of the distribution, reflecting the more positive health status of the majority of children.

Cut-off for not healthy

slide33

Frequency of malaise symptoms [% of children]

Somatic symptom scores by percentages of children in social class groups

diagnostics
Diagnostics
  • When the sample size is large, almost any goodness of fit test (e.g. Kolmogorov-Smirnov) will result in rejection of the null hypothesis
  • For large data sets therefore, important to look not only at observed significance level but also at the actual departure from normality

e.g. probability plots; residuals; casewise diagnostics of outliers in dependent variables

diagnostics testing the regression model

200

100

y

c

n

e

u

Std. Dev = 1.00

q

e

Mean = 0.00

r

F

N = 1512.00

0

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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Regression Standardized Residual

Diagnostics: testing the regression model

Figure 5.37 Residuals

If the model is appropriate for the data, residuals (estimates of the true error) should follow a normal distribution

conclusion
Conclusion

Demographic, social and cultural factors contribute to highly active preadolescent population

  • Activity choice: extensive network of Gaelic games parallel to ‘multicultural’ sports
  • High activity level of rural schoolchildren
  • Population density less than many European countries
  • Independent mobility – relatively safe in Ireland
conclusion38
Conclusion
  • Little evidence of the impact of socioeconomic status on activity behaviour in primary pupils
  • Significant association between educational opportunity and lifestyle development
  • Social integration status: related to PA and to health/well-being
  • Lifestyle choice is conditioned by life chances: educational and economic
  • Primary school the agent of socialisation best positioned to provide life chance: opportunity for lifestyle development