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Health, Fitness and a Healthy Active Lifestyle. What is meant by the term 'agility'? Give one example from a physical activity where a performer uses agility. (2 marks) Award one mark for a correct explanation of agility and one mark for a correct example from a physical activity. Agility:

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    1. Health, Fitness and a Healthy Active Lifestyle

    2. What is meant by the term 'agility'? Give one example from a physical activity where a performer uses agility. (2 marks) Award one mark for a correct explanation of agility and one mark for a correct example from a physical activity. Agility: • the combination of flexibility and speed • the ability to move quickly, changing direction and speed. Physical activity examples: • a hurdler in athletics going over the hurdle • a soccer, or hockey player, dribbling with the ball • a gymnast performing a floor routine • a skier performing a slalom run.

    3. Give a general definition of what good health is. (1 mark) A state of complete physical, social and mental wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

    4. The type of strength which can be applied to an immovable object is known as: Dynamic Static Power Explosive (1 mark)

    5. Which one of these will not improve an individual’s health? Good hygiene Balanced diet Lack of sleep Regular medical check-ups (1 mark)

    6. Explain two exercise habits that could easily be used in everyday life. (2 marks) • Walk / cycle instead of driving, • Walk part of journey (get off bus one stop earlier), • Use stairs instead of escalators, • Join sports team, • Join gym, • Any other appropriate answer.

    7. The most important factor for a fast start in a 100 m sprint is: Flexibility Balance Reaction time Co-ordination (1 mark)

    8. Regular exercise is important to help maintain a healthy lifestyle. State two reasons why taking part in regular exercise can improve your health. (2 marks) • Reduces stress or tension/ feel good factor or mental wellbeing. • Improves fitness levels or physical wellbeing. • Improves basic levels of strength or flexibility or endurance. • Reduces the chances of illness or injury. • Allows you to mix with other people or social wellbeing. • Helps keep weight down/ look good.

    9. Using two examples, explain how the type of practice you named in the previous question could be used in learning a new skill or technique. (4 marks) Award one mark for how each type of practice is used, and one mark for each qualified example. Examples include: • Part – suited to complex skills/ which have several parts/ breakdown the skill into parts to aid learning or triple jump – hop, step, jump. • Fixed – suitable for closed skills/ where the environment stays the same/ actions can be performed in the same way each time/ eg golf tee shot, penalty kick, forward roll. • Variable – suited to open skills/ where the conditions change during the execution of the skill/ used in invasion game practices to replicate situations that may occur in a game eg football, netball. • Whole-part-whole – The whole skill is practised first/ then it is broken down to practise each element/ and then is put back together again, eg tennis serve – toss, swing, hit, follow through or thigh, neck and throw.

    10. Describe two benefits that can be gained from exercising regularly. (2 marks) • Improving body shape, • Losing weight / fat, • Relieving stress and tension, • Helping you to sleep better, • Reducing chances of getting illnesses and diseases, • Toning body and improving posture, • Helping improve basic levels of strength, flexibility and stamina.

    11. Using an example, explain what is meant by ‘whole practice’. (2 marks) Award one mark for an explanation of whole practice and one mark for explaining a relevant example. • A complete performance of the learnt skill. • Repeating the complete or whole action eg throwing or catching (in isolation not game). Any example involving the whole skill (not split into parts) eg dribbling.

    12. Explain how whole practice could improve your performance in a skill or technique of your choice. (2 marks) • Performer appreciates the flow/ sequence/ or feel of the complete movement. • Simple or easier to carry out/ can enable quicker learning. • Good for simple skills/ performer can repeat it over and over again. • Prevents boredom as the performer is completing the whole movement/ so concentration is maintained. Accept any other suitable response. NB no marks awarded for variable or open skills ie skill must be shown in isolation.

    13. Name and describe 3 different functions of the skeletal system. (3 marks) • Support – for muscles and vital organs, • Movement – at joints, • Shape – for maintaining basic body shape, • Protection – of vital organs e.g. brain, • Blood-cell production – in the bone marrow.

    14. Other than whole practice, name another type of practice. (1 mark) • Part/ fixed/ variable/ whole-part-whole.

    15. Explain why Chris should use appropriate verbal communication when coaching beginners. (2 marks) So that the beginner can understand the instructions/ advice/ technical terms/ the description is clear or precise/ key words/ no offensive or abusive language/ suitable volume/ simple language/ appropriate to age/ ability of beginners/ to ensure safety.

    16. What is a tendon and what function does it perform? (2 marks) • Very strong, non-elastic cords. • Join muscles to bone.

    17. What function does cartilage perform and where would it be found? (2 marks) • Tough but flexible tissue that acts as a buffer between bones at joints. • Found at the end of bones anywhere that there is a risk of bone rubbing against another bone.

    18. Identify two examples of non-verbal communication and explain how Chris could use these when coaching beginners. (4 marks) Award one mark for each relevant example and one mark for explaining how each nonverbal communication could be used when coaching beginners. • Demonstrations or videos or DVDs or pictures/ so they can see what the skill or technique looks like/ must be accurate/ attainable so they can pick up the key cues. • Gestures or signals/ positive or negative feedback dependent on action. • Whistle/ arm waving/ could signal danger therefore stop activity. • Manual guidance/ so they get the feel of the movement/ correct a movement. • Eye contact/ positive or negative feedback dependent on action.

    19. Describe the following four movements? (4 marks) • Flexion – decreasing angle of a joint (bending the arm at the elbow). • Extension – increasing the angle of a joint (straightening the arm at the elbow). • Abduction – movement of a limb away from midline of body (e.g. movement of arms when lifting arms in star jump). • Adduction – movement of a limb towards the midline of body (e.g. movement of arms when lowering arms in star jump).

    20. Describe what is meant by an isometric contraction? (2 marks) • Contraction of the muscle with no actual movement of either the limb or joint. • E.g. muscle contractions during a scrum in rugby when both teams are pushing with equal force.

    21. In which one of the following do female sports performers tend to have an advantage over male sports performers? Flexibility Strength Speed Power (1 mark)

    22. Movement is brought about by the muscular and skeletal systems working together. Using an example, explain how muscles and bones work together to produce movement. (4 marks) Award one mark for identifying a relevant example. Award a further three marks for an explanation of how muscles and bones work together to produce movement. • Muscles are attached to bones via tendons. • The origin is attached to the bone that doesn’t move/ the insertion is attached to the bone that moves. • Muscles can only pull/ and are arranged in pairs (antagonistic). • One contracts (shortens or flexes or agonist or prime mover)/ and one relaxes (lengthens or antagonist). • Ligaments keep the joint stable. • Movement can only occur at a joint.

    23. Increased flexibility can help to improve performance. State what is meant by the term ‘flexibility’. (1 mark) • The range of movement at a joint.

    24. Name and describe a test that could be used to measure Cardiovascular Endurance. (3 marks) • Multi-stage fitness test. Participants run 20m shuttles staying in time with the ‘beeps’. Speed increases until participant can no longer keep with ‘beeps’. • 12 minute Cooper run. 12 minute continuous run. Total distance covered is measured and compared to a national chart to determine stamina levels.

    25. Using an example from a named physical activity, explain how increased flexibility can help to improve performance. (3 marks) Award up to three marks for correctly explaining how increased flexibility can improve performance. Award one mark for the example and a further two marks for the explanation. • A games player can increase their stride length/ to get into position quicker/ to receive a pass. • A back crawl swimmer will have a longer pull/ to go faster/ to win a race. • A gymnast can perform a difficult move with style/ to gain more marks/ to win a competition. Accept any other suitable response.

    26. People are encouraged to live a healthy active lifestyle. Using five examples, state how people could make their everyday lifestyle more healthy and active. (5 marks) Award up to five marks for examples of how people could make their everyday lifestyle more healthy and active. NB To achieve maximum marks students must give both healthy and active examples (accept 4+1). • Use the stairs instead of the escalator or lift. • Use a bike as a form of transport where possible. • If you use the bus get off a stop earlier to walk part of the journey. • Don’t allow yourself to be driven short distances, walk instead. • Do some form of exercise – gardening, hoovering, active sport. • Follow a balanced diet or eat more fruit and vegetables or ‘5 a day’. • Eat less fats or sugars or salts. • Ensure they have suitable amounts of rest. • Regular medical check-ups. • Socialise with others. • Have a work-life balance. • Maintain personal hygiene. • Do not use drugs eg alcohol, tobacco. • Less TV or less time on computer. Accept any other suitable response.

    27. Using an example, explain how ‘intrinsic knowledge of performance’ is different from ‘extrinsic knowledge of results’. (4 marks) • Intrinsic knowledge of performance – form of internal feedback during a performance or how well the player feels or senses they are performing. • Eg a tennis player hitting the ball feels that good contact is made (hitting the sweet spot). • Extrinsic knowledge of results – a form of external feedback at the end of a performance or the outcome of the performance. • Eg a tennis player sees the ball land in the court/ they win the point/ the crowd cheers/ winning or losing/ success or failure. Accept any other suitable response.

    28. Name a sport which requires a good level of agility and explain why agility is important in this sport. (2 marks) • Any appropriate answer for sport requiring agility (e.g. netball, rugby, football). • Required for running past an opponent / dodging an opponent / creating space etc.

    29. Describe one movement that the quadriceps and hamstrings would work together to allow? (2 marks) • Any movement that involves extension at the knee joint. • E.g. Kicking a football / jumping / running. • Quadriceps contract and hamstrings relax to allow extension at knee joint. • Antagonistic pairs.

    30. Jack is a talented sports performer who wants to improve his level of fitness. Explain why fitness testing is important before Jack begins a training programme. (2 marks) • To gauge level of fitness or baseline fitness. • To highlight weaknesses or strengths. • To motivate the performer. • Target setting. • To make training more specific or appropriate or suitable. • Check or monitor progress.

    31. Describe the Illinois agility test. (2 marks) • Participant lies face down on floor. • (At starting signal), participant jumps up and completes the course as quickly as possible. • Cones set out over distance of 10 metres by 5 metres wide.

    32. Cheryl is a popular and effective coach. She is very good at non-verbal communication. Other than non-verbal communication, name two communication and interpersonal skills that an effective coach should have. (2 marks) Award one mark for each communication and interpersonal skill named. • Use of appropriate terminology/ language. • Listening/ responding to users. • Team working/ co-operation/ adaptability/ delegation. • Persuading/ advising/ influencing colleagues and customers. • Reacting to/ and adapting to trends and changing situations. • Verbal communication/ volume/ clarity/ intonation/ projection. • Control/ presence/ ability to gain and maintain the individual or group’s attention. • Personal qualities/ determination/ conviction/ enthusiasm. Accept any other suitable response.

    33. Describe in detail the actions around the knee joint to perform a vertical jump. You must refer to the muscle involved, the role each muscle performs and the type of contraction. (5 marks) • Jumping involves extension in the knee joint. • Extension caused by contraction of the quadriceps. • Quadriceps act as prime mover / agonist. • Quadriceps contracts while hamstrings relax / antagonistic pair. • Hamstrings act as antagonist. • Muscle contraction is isometric and concentric (muscle shortens as it contracts).

    34. Explain how non-verbal communication skills help Cheryl to be an effective coach. (2 marks) Award up to two marks for explaining how non-verbal communication skills help Cheryl to be an effective coach. NB Do not accept manual guidance as it is not a non-verbal communication skill. Non-verbal communication including demonstrations/ signals/ gestures. Demonstration will be accurate/ the demonstration is attainable/ performers pick up the key cues/ easily or readily/ as they understand the various signals or gestures. Accept any other suitable response.