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  1. Leading to a Civil War Instructor: Carol Jean Cox

  2. LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR • Events Leading to the Secession of the South • The Confederate States of America • Causes Leading to the Civil War

  3. Leading to a Civil War • Events leading to the Secession of the South • Sucession "to withdraw formally from a union or alliance” Southern individual states nullified their ratification of the U.S. constitution

  4. The Process of Secession

  5. Leading to a Civil War • Events leading to the Secession of the South • Political Sectionalism • Missouri Compromise 1820 • Missouri - slave state • Maine - free state • Entry of states into the Union have to be balanced - one free/one slave • Gag Rule of 1836 • Compromise of 1850 • California a free state • Slavery allowed in the other territories acquired from Mexico

  6. Slave and Free Territories Under the Compromise of 1850

  7. Leading to a Civil War • Events leading to the Secession of the South • Political Sectionalism • Despite territorial gains emerged from the Mexican American War, Americans were more divided than ever • North denounced war as a southern project for expanding slavery • David Wilmot - Wilmot Proviso • no slavery in Mexican Territory Many hoping the Compromise of 1850 had finally settled slavery

  8. Leading to a Civil War • Events leading to the Secession of the South • Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 • organized 2 new federal territories • repealed section of Missouri Compromise • prohibiting slavery in states/territories north of 36º 30’ latitude • people decide (popular sovereignty) “Bleeding Kansas”

  9. Leading to a Civil War • Events leading to the Secession of the South • Change in 2 party system • Democrats & Whigs • Democrats (dough faces) • needed northern candidate to win because of the number of southerners • F. Pierce 1852, J. Buchanan 1856, Douglas ? • Whigs • Kansas & Nebraska Act killed party divided sectionally • North & South too far apart on slavery issue to hold party together

  10. Leading to a Civil War • Events leading to the Secession of the South • Change in 2 party system • Democrats & Whigs • Whigs & Free Soilers = Republicans • * only a northern party • tolerate slavery in south • unwilling to accept it's expansion • demand that the Kansas & Nebraska Act be repealed • central railroad (rather than northern as Douglas proposed) • Homestead Act - western lands to families to settle 160 acres

  11. Leading to a Civil War • Events leading to the Secession of the South • Dred Scott Decision 1857 • Southern dominated court • Slaves were property • "congress could not ban slavery from territories” • Chief Justice Roger Taney

  12. Leading to a Civil War • Events leading to the Secession of the South • The Election of 1860 • Aggressive movements of pro slave movement • frightened north • Hardened resistance in North • intensified southern insecurity • South demands - congressional slave codes

  13. Leading to a Civil War • Events leading to the Secession of the South • The Election of 1860 • Freeport Doctrine • legislation to protect slave property in north • Lead to a division of the Democratic Party • Northern Democrats - Stephen Douglas • appealed to North & South but ambiguous • Southern Democrats - John Breckenridge • Appealed to south - popular sovereignty • Republicans - Abraham Lincoln • Constitutional Union Party - John Bell

  14. The Election of 1860

  15. LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR • Events Leading to the Secession of the South • Political Sectionalism • Missouri Compromise • Gag Rule • Compromise of 1850 • Wilmot Proviso • Kansas Nebraska Act 1854 • Dred Scot Decision 1857 • Election of 1860

  16. LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR • Events Leading to the Secession of the South • The Confederate States of America • Causes Leading to the Civil War

  17. The Confederate States of America

  18. Leading to a Civil War • The Confederate States of America • Constitution 1787 (1789 9 states ratified - 4 didn't) • established government • Constitution states that states can't coin money and can’t maintain an army but can they secede? • Southern Position held that the Constitution did not automatically bind states • Individual States first . . . then United STATES UNITED

  19. Leading to a Civil War • The Confederate States of America • Individual States first . . . then United STATES UNITED • 11 southern states seceded and formed their own country • North says no you can't leave = 4 long years of fighting • CIVIL (internal) War - settle question about whether a state can succeed • Pre Civil War The United States are • Post Civil War The United States is

  20. Leading to a Civil War • The Confederate States of America • Radicals - fire eaters • South Carolinians since Nullification Controversy • South Carolina state convention Dec 20, 1860 • repeal ratification of federal constitution • 6 weeks later MI, Fl, GA, Al, LA, TX succeed • Delegates to Montgomery Alabama • organized themselves as the C.S. of A. • Jefferson Davis - President ( Mississippi)

  21. LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR • Events Leading to the Secession of the South • The Confederate States of America • Causes Leading to the Civil War

  22. Leading to a Civil War • Causes Leading to A Civil War 1. Conspiracy President Country • North Lincoln 1860 USA • South J. Davis 1861 CSA • Each side felt the other was conspiring against the other • Laws & measures that inhibited the south - DAVIS Congress controlled by north • North doesn't want to control south - south wants to expand into the west LINCOLN • Each side didn't trust in an economic or political sense

  23. Leading to a Civil War • Causes Leading to A Civil War 2. Constitutional UNITED STATES VS. STATES UNITED • South - separate individual states form the union • since states formed the union they can opt out • North - the union created the states by the constitution • If the union is dissolved there is nothing • LINCOLN WAS FIGHTING TO SAVE THE UNION NOT TO FREE THE SLAVES (a political move) • Lincoln was a federalist & constitutionalist

  24. Leading to a Civil War • Causes Leading to A Civil War 3. Growth of Slavery • South had 4 million slaves • Slave owners 25% • 17 % 1-9 slaves • 7% 10-99 slaves • .1% 100+ • very few had large plantations • small minority of controlling whites controlled southern society • Labor intensive agricultural society • slaves imported because can't get enough whites to do the labor

  25. Leading to a Civil War • Causes Leading to A Civil War 3. Slavery • Davis - the Blacks have a better condition under the superior White race “docile savages to bodily comforts and religious instruction” • Lincoln - not in favor of bringing about the social or economic equality of Negroes “There must be the position of inferior/superior” Lincoln 1858 Lincoln was a product of his own culture Freeing of slaves not a matter of equality!!! Yet he was against the concept of slavery SAVE THE UNION

  26. Leading to a Civil War • Causes Leading to A Civil War 4. Economic • Labor • South - free labor North - paid labor • Tariffs • North wanted to protect their products artificial inflation of imports • South faced reciprocal tariffs when they exported their agricultural products South Against High Tariffs North Against Free Labor

  27. Leading to a Civil War • Causes Leading to A Civil War 4. Economic • North passes laws in congress because of an imbalance in voting power • 19 Free States • 15 Slave States

  28. Leading to a Civil War • Causes Leading to A Civil War 5. Nature of a Republic • What is a Republic? • Representative Democracy • Freedom to choose South choose to leave under this freedom Under another system this would not have happened!

  29. Leading to a Civil War • ". . . it presents the question whether discontented individuals too few in numbers to control administration according to organic law in any case, can always upon the pretenses made in this case, or on any other pretense, break up their government, and thus practically put an end to free government upon the earth. It forces us to ask: Is there, in all republics, this inherent and fatal weakness? Must a government, of necessity be too strong for the liberties of its own people or too weak to maintain its own existence?" Lincoln - July 4, 1861 following Ft. Sumter

  30. Leading to a Civil War “our heritage depends on inherent weakness of a republic to strong to maintain liberties yet too weak to maintain its existence”. Abraham Lincoln

  31. Leading to a Civil War • Causes Leading to the Civil War • Conspiracy • Constitutional • Slavery • Economic • Nature of a Republic 1600 ---------------1787--------------1865---------------2000+ Colonial Am. Nation Civil War • Civil War 265 years since beginnings of our country

  32. LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR • Events Leading to the Secession of the South • The Confederate States of America • Causes Leading to the Civil War

  33. Leading to a Civil War Instructor: Carol Jean Cox