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Ports, Harbors, and the Urban Coast

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  1. Ports, Harbors, and the Urban Coast An Introduction to the Marine Transportation System Jim Kruse, Texas Sea Grant Jim Fawcett, USC Sea Grant

  2. A Crash Course in Marine Transportation • History of Sea Grant involvement in Marine Transportation and Seaports • A primer on marine transportation • Who are the Sea Grant Specialists • What we do • How we can help you

  3. Sea Grant Extension and Port Management • Previously, group of marine transportation and seaport specialists from 1980 to about 1995 • Represented all four coastlines • Informal group • Group gradually disbanded as specialists retired, became administrators, or left Sea Grant • Theme is now being restored with the support of the NSGO and the National Review Panel

  4. Marine Transportation Terms • MTS: Marine Transportation System • TEU: Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit (used in measuring the volume of container traffic) • Container: A steel intermodal cargo container of standard size • Bulk cargo: Cargo not carried in containers • Terminal: A facility designed to accommodate one or more ships alongside a wharf where cargo of a specific type can be loaded and unloaded with specialized equipment

  5. Marine Transportation Terms-II • Load Center: Large regional seaport, a “hub” • Feeder Port: Subsidiary seaport, often sends cargo to load center ports • Niche Port: Port specializing in one or a few types of cargoes • Non-maritime Port: Cargo handled only by barges, not seagoing cargo ships

  6. Why is the Marine Transportation System Such a Big Deal?

  7. Trade through US Customs Districts

  8. The US Marine Transportation System • More than 1,000 harbor channels • 25,000 miles of inland, intracoastal and coastal waterways • More than 300 ports 3,700 terminals that handle cargo or passengers

  9. Inland Support Infrastructure to the MTS • 152,000 miles of rail 460,000 miles of pipeline 45,000 miles of interstate highways

  10. Major Functions of the MTS • Cargo Movement • Passenger Movement • Marine Recreation • Fishing & Processing • Ports for Navy and Coast Guard • System Maintenance (ship construction yards, ship repair yards)

  11. Tell me again: What’s a TEU? • Twenty-foot equivalent unit • “Standard” container is 40 ft • Container traffic statistics are in TEUs • “box” = container

  12. Measuring Cargo Volume • For containerized cargo: TEUs (number of 20-foot cargo container equivalents) • For bulk cargoes (oil, grain, minerals): tonnage • When comparing port statistics of cargo volume, be aware of the difference between the two types of measurements

  13. Terms: Tonnage • Can be metric (2,205 lbs) or short (2,000 lbs) tons • Typical measurement for bulk and break bulk cargoes

  14. World Container Ports by Volume, 2001 Includes domestic, international and empty repositioning containers Source: JoC Week, Vol. 3, Issue 32, August, 2002

  15. Top 10 U.S. Container Ports, 2001

  16. U.S. Foreign Trade via Ocean Container Transport 20 Largest US Exporters (2002) Source: JoC Week, Vol. 4, Issue 17, April 28, 2003

  17. U.S. Foreign Trade via Ocean Container Transport 20 Largest US Importers (2002) Source: JoC Week, Vol. 4, Issue 17, April 28, 2003

  18. U.S. Ports Ranked by Total Tons 2001 Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Navigation Data Center, www.iwr.usace.army.mil/ndc/wcsc

  19. Managing the Vessel Harbor Pilots Tug Assist Dockage, Channel Fees Turning Basins Demurrage Docking Maneuvers

  20. 4,400 TEU containership

  21. Container Ship

  22. Tramp Vessel

  23. Box Barge 200' x 35' Outer188' x 28' x 14' Inner80,000 cubic ft of cargo space Tank Barge 10,000 Barrels195' Rake Barge 195' x 35' Outer158' x 28' x 14' Inner60,000 Cubic ft of cargo space

  24. Managing the Cargo • Linehandlers • Stevedores • Warehousemen • Security • Clerks • Truckers • Etc.

  25. Bulk Cargo Terminals-I • Cargoes are not palletized, containerized or unitized in any way (grain, oil, minerals, aggregates) • Typically they require loaders/unloaders • They require large storage areas or containment areas (transit sheds, elevators, coveredstorage, pipelines and tank farms)

  26. Bulk Cargo Terminals--II • Transportation cost is a high % of total cost of goods • Goods themselves are often raw materials • Wharfage charged on a tonnage basis

  27. Break-Bulk Cargo • Palletized, crated, or boxed cargo • Cargo that will not fit in a cargo container, usually • Sometimes this cargo is carried break-bulk because the port cannot handle containers

  28. Neo-Bulk Cargoes • Structural steel • Large machinery (earthmovers, industrial equipment, yachts)

  29. Containerized Cargo-I • The majority of non-bulk of cargo handled worldwide • Requires specialized cranes and yard equipment • Require marshalling yards of >40 acres per ship berth for container storage/positioning • Special areas in the port required for inspection

  30. ICTF = Intermodal Container Transfer Facility

  31. ICTF

  32. Containerized Cargo--II • Requires large gate complexes to manage trailer-borne containers into and out of the marine terminal • Often new terminals also have dockside rail connections within the terminal • An area of the port that can be very congested • Security is always an issue • Port charges tariffs on a “per container” basis

  33. General Cargo • “Project cargoes” that may include trailers, pre-fab buildings, earthmoving equipment, drilling rigs • Roll-on/Roll-off vessels (vehicles are driven on and off the vessel--imported/exported cars and trucks) [Like your new Maserati]