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Ports and the Economy. Presentation for Management Seminar Unisantos, Brazil by Dr. Veronica Z. Kalich Associate Professor – Economics Baldwin-Wallace College May 2005. Global Patterns of US Merchandise Trade - Balance. 2004 Balance of TOTAL in thousands $USD  .

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ports and the economy

Ports and the Economy

Presentation for Management Seminar

Unisantos, Brazil

by

Dr. Veronica Z. Kalich

Associate Professor – Economics

Baldwin-Wallace College

May 2005

global patterns of us merchandise trade balance
Global Patterns of US Merchandise Trade - Balance

2004 Balance of TOTAL

in thousands $USD  

slide4

U.S. Merchandise Trade Balance With the World in 2004 by Specific Products

http://tse.export.gov/NTDChartDisplay.aspx?UniqueURL=b02fabe11gh5htzoey4yrerh-2005-5-4-10-51-44

slide15

Ports as Gateways to Global Trade

Black Falcon Cruise TerminalBoston, MA

Military CargoPort of Tacoma, WA

Salt transferred atPort Newark/Elizabeth, NJ

Hanjin Shipping TerminalPort of Long Beach, CA

Virginia Port Authority, VA

Wood pulp LoadingAlabama State DocksMobile, AL

Florida Dept. of Commerce

economic impact of ports
Economic Impact of Ports
  • Port Industry accounts for 4 million jobs
  • Port-related jobs generate $44 billion in Personal Income, annually
  • Port-related incomes supply federal and local government $16.1 billion in total tax revenues
  • Port activity accounts for $723 billion annually to GDP

Source 1

selected world port ranking total cargo volume 2003
Selected World Port RankingTotal Cargo Volume 2003

~

* MT = Metric Ton FT = Freight Ton

role of ports in economic development
Role of Ports in Economic Development
  • Ports are a major determinant of industrial plant location
  • Waterfront sites provide low-cost transportation of finished goods and raw materials
  • Continued U.S. economic growth will fuel demand for imports
  • Port capacity is not expected to keep up with the growing activity
    • Underinvestment in port and intermodal infrastructure
slide19

Ships Benefit Ohio's Environment

  • Waterborne commerce is the greenest form of transportation.
  • Ships burn less fuel and produce fewer emissions than trains or trucks
  • Typical season, ships use 9.6 million gallons of fuel to deliver roughly 8 million tons of iron ore to Lorain
  • Were that trade to switch to trains, locomotives would burn more than 14 million gallons of fuel and their emissions would double that of ships
port congestion infrastructure problem
Port Congestion – Infrastructure Problem
  • Ports can’t expand (ie. California)
    • Infrastructure costs are beyond the state’s fiscal capacity/resources
    • Anti-expansion sentiments
      • Ports come with traffic problems and pollution
  • Rising Fuel costs affect truckers hauling loads
    • “waiting isn’t worthwhile”
  • Few legislative responses
    • Focus is more on increased security
    • Use of alternative deep-water ports
u s waterborne foreign trade top 10 trading partners containerized cargo 2004
U.S. Waterborne Foreign TradeTop 10 Trading PartnersContainerized Cargo2004

*Twenty-Foot Equivalent Units Source 3

slide23

Port and Intermodal Chokepoints

Problem Spots - 2004

forecast
Forecast
  • Underinvestment in port and intermodal infrastructure
    • By 2020, its predicted that the U.S. transportation system will handle cargo valued at more than $28 trillion
  • Continued U.S. economic growth will fuel demand for imports
    • Port capacity is not expected to keep up with the growing activity

Source 3

forecast1
Forecast
  • China’s economy (GDP) expected to double by 2010
  • Restrictive labor practices in the US will hinder productivity growth at the ports
  • Chokepoints between the ports and inland transportation will stall transfer of cargo
  • Without a coherent expansion plan for transportation INFRASTUCTURE PROBLEMS will continue

Source 3

possible solutions
Possible Solutions
  • Financing Improvements
    • Improve rail and highway (inland modes of transportation)
    • U.S. public ports have already made advances
    • Expected investment: $1 billion each future year
  • Public/Private Partnerships
  • Involving all stakeholders
    • Carriers, ports, truckers
    • railroads
    • Government (state, local and Federal)
  • Insourcing manufacturing – in North America
  • Train more workers

Source 1