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Polybenzoxazines : New Chemistry. Roger Tietze Robert Kultzow Tim Truong. Presentation. Introduction Chemistry Material Properties Bisphenol A benzoxazine Conclusion Future Developments. Introduction. Technology Origin: Chemistry discovered in the 1930’s

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polybenzoxazines new chemistry

Polybenzoxazines : New Chemistry

Roger Tietze

Robert Kultzow

Tim Truong

  • Introduction
  • Chemistry
  • Material Properties
  • Bisphenol A benzoxazine
  • Conclusion
  • Future Developments

Technology Origin:

  • Chemistry discovered in the 1930’s
  • Patent technology was acquired from a Swiss Research organization in the early 1990’s
  • Huntsman has modified and enhanced the scope of benzoxazine technology
  • Technology has been commercialized
  • Huntsman trade name : Azyrals
  • Benzoxazines are a unique non-halogen thermoset resin chemistry
  • These compounds can be synthesized from phenols, formaldehyde, and amines.
  • No halogen based precursors
  • Benzoxazines can homopolymerize to form a polybenzoxazine thermoset networks
  • Benzoxazines also co-cure with epoxies
  • Electronics PWB market has a need for a non-halogen resin chemistry.
polybenzoxazine chemistry
Polybenzoxazine Chemistry


  • Potential low cost high performance thermoset
  • High purity resin system
  • High glass transition temperature
  • Low shrinkage
  • Low coefficient of thermal expansion
  • Better moisture resistance.
  • Better flammability resistance than epoxies and other thermosets
  • Excellent electrical properties

Benzoxazine: Neat Resin Sample Preparation

  • To test the properties of benzoxazines and other thermosets, neat resin samples were prepared by the following procedure:
  • Resins and hardeners are melted
  • Degassed
  • Poured into a mold
  • Cured with the appropriate cure cycle

UL94 Testing : Neat Resin

Note: Longest burn time recorded


Benzoxazine: Electrical Testing

  • Neat resin specimens : 0.5” x 0.5”
  • Neat resin specimen thickness : 2.0 mm – 2.5 mm
  • HP4291A RF Impedance/Material Analyzer
  • Linked to HP 16453A Dielectric Material Test Fixture with a High Impedance Test Head
  • Calibration included the HP low loss capacitor
  • Frequency range : 1 MHz to 1.8 GHZ
  • Reported data range : 10 MHz – 1.5 GHZ
neat resin results
Neat Resin Results
  • Benzoxazines more flame resistant than epoxies
  • Good electrical properties
  • High glass transition temperatures
typical properties xu3560
Visual appearance Yellow chunks

Melting point, °C 80-85

Viscosity @ 125C, cps 185

Volatile, % ~2

DSC uncured

Initiation Temperature To, C 231

Peak Temperature Tg, C 241

H, J/g 238

Typical PropertiesXU3560
mechanical properties
Mechanical Properties

*48hrs boiling water

novel high performance systems
Novel High Performance Systems

Conclusions :

  • We have developed unique benzoxazine resins with commercially viable manufacturing processes.
  • These resins afford wide formulation latitude and can be formulated with epoxies, thermoplastics and catalysts to suit various applications and fabrication processes.
  • These resins are ideal for high performance composite, structural adhesive and printing wiring board (PWB) applications.
  • The benzoxazine/epoxy systems have high Tg°C, good thermal oxidation stability, low water pick-up, reduced shrinkage, good electrical, and are room temperature stable.
benzoxazine technology
Benzoxazine Technology

Current Status

  • Technology development work continues
  • New candidate products have been introduced for
    • Aerospace composite markets
    • High performance laminating markets
  • We have cooperative developments programs with Key customers
  • Qualifications in progress at major customers in both Electronic and Aerospace segments
  • Industrial applications are being explored
  • Manufacturing in place in North America and Europe.
  • Process development work to install manufacturing capability in Asia in the near future.
Thank You