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Perception. Definition and Process Perception of Others Perceptual Problems Strategies to Improve Perception. Perception. Definition- the process of selectively attending to information and assigning meaning to it. Three Step Process. Attention and Organization Organization

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Definition and Process

Perception of Others

Perceptual Problems

Strategies to Improve Perception

  • Definition- the process of selectively attending to information and assigning meaning to it.
three step process
Three Step Process
  • Attention and Organization
  • Organization
  • Interpretation
attention and selection
Attention and Selection
  • We are hit with a constant barrage of stimuli, what do we focus on?
  • Needs, Interests, and Expectations (p. 31)
perception of others
Perception of Others
  • Will they like me?
  • Are they like ?
  • Will they accept me?
  • Will I get along with them?
  • All questions we are faced with in initial encounters.
uncertainty reduction theory
Uncertainty Reduction Theory
  • Def.- explains the ways individuals monitor their social environments and come to know more about themselves and others.
  • Uncertainty is uncomfortable and we try to alleviate it by answering previous questions.
observing others
Observing Others
  • Race, gender, age, appearance, facial expressions, movement, space, touch, communication, all important.
  • Physical attractiveness from height, weight, grooming, dress, sound of voice, all important.
  • We then use these to categorize people as friendly, courageous, intelligent, cool, or opposite as ourselves.
first impressions
First Impressions
  • How do you act?
  • What do you look for?
  • Are they important to you?
perceptual problems
Perceptual Problems
  • Implicit Personality Theory- People develop assumptions about which physical characteristics and personality traits or behaviors are associated with another.
perceptual problems1
Perceptual Problems
  • Halo Effect- perceiving that a person has a whole set of characteristics when you have actually observed only one characteristic, trait or behavior.
perceptual problems2
Perceptual Problems
  • Selective Perception- the tendency to pay attention only to what we expect to see or hear.
  • Only see the good or only see the bad.
perceptual problems3
Perceptual Problems
  • Attributions- reasons we give for others’ behavior.
  • If you like the person, a good excuse, if dislike them, a negative excuse.
perceptual problems4
Perceptual Problems
  • Prejudice- a positive or negative attitude or judgment directed toward people simply because they happen to be members of a specific group.
improving your perceptions
Improving your Perceptions
  • Question the accuracy of your perceptions.
  • Seek more information to verify your perceptions.
  • Get to know each person as a unique individual.
  • Realize that your perceptions about a person will change over time.
your new skill
Your New Skill
  • Perception Checking
  • Three Steps
  • Describe the observable behavior
  • Give two possible interpretations
  • Ask for clarification