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ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS OF STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES HAS OUR ORGANIZATION BEEN FINANCIALLY COMPETITIVE ? SCRUTINIZE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS WERE OUR STRATEGIC MARKETING OBJECTIVES ACHIEVED ? STRATEGIC CORPORATE OBJECTIVES ARE OUR PRICES AND COSTS COMPETITIVE ? VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS

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Organizational analysis of strengths and weaknesses l.jpg
ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSISOF STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES

  • HAS OUR ORGANIZATION BEEN FINANCIALLY COMPETITIVE?

    • SCRUTINIZE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

  • WERE OUR STRATEGIC MARKETING OBJECTIVES ACHIEVED?

    • STRATEGIC CORPORATE OBJECTIVES

  • ARE OUR PRICES AND COSTS COMPETITIVE?

    • VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS

  • WHAT ARE OUR DISTINCTIVE COMPETENCIES & RESOURCES?

    • PERSONNEL, STRUCTURE, PHYSICAL RESOURCES, DEPARTMENTS

  • HOW STRONG IS OUR COMPETITIVE POSITION?

    • COMPETITIVE ASSESSMENT WITH KEY SUCCESS FACTORS

  • HOW WELL ARE OUR PRESENT STRATEGIES WORKING?

    • COMPETITIVE, CORPORATE, FUNCTIONAL

      IN SUMMARY, WHAT ARE THE TOP STRENGTHS AND THE GREATEST WEAKNESSES THIS ORGANIZATION POSSESSES?


  • Organizational audits l.jpg
    ORGANIZATIONAL AUDITS

    FINANCIAL & MARKET PERFORMANCE (Strengths/Weaknesses)

    FINANCIAL INDICATORS

    • RATIOS, FINANCIAL COMPARISONS, TRENDS

      STRATEGIC MARKET INDICATORS

    • MARKET SHARE, PENETRATION, TRENDS

      INTERNAL ORGANIZATION (Distinctive Competencies/Weaknesses)

      PERSONNEL -- Top Management, Professional Expertise

      STRUCTURE -- Authority, Accountability, Communication, Decision-Making

      CORPORATE CULTURE -- Norms, Historic ways of doing things

      PHYSICAL RESOURCES -- Equipment, Buildings, Locations

      COMPETENCE OF KEY DEPARTMENTS -- Mktg, R&D, Operations, IS

      OBJECTIVES & STRATEGIES (Successes/Failures)

      CLARITY AND FOCUS OF MISSION/VISION

      PRECISION AND LOGIC OF STRATEGIC CORPORATE OBJECTIVES

      “FIT” & SUCCESS OF COMPETITIVE (Business-level) STRATEGIES

      “FIT” & SUCCESS WITH CORPORATE (Investment-level) STRATEGIES

      SUCCESS WITH IMPLEMENTING DEPARTMENTAL STRATEGIES

      SUMMARY OF ORGANIZATIONAL CONDITION

      Summarize the distinctive competencies and strengths and the glaring organizational weaknesses and failures you’ve detected at this firm.


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    OBVIOUS INDICATORS OF STRATEGIC AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE

    MARKET SHARE AND RANKING

    PROFIT MARGINS INCREASING? COMPARISONS WITH RIVALS?

    TRENDS IN NET PROFITS (NP) & RETURN ON TOTAL ASSETS (ROA) COMPARISONS WITH RIVALS? …WITH THE INDUSTRY?

    CREDIT RATING

    SALES GROWING? FASTER OR SLOWER THAN THE INDUSTRY?

    REPUTATION WITH CUSTOMERS? IMAGE?

    IS THIS COMPANY A LEADER IN ANYTHING?

    INNOVATION, TECHNOLOGY, QUALITY, CUSTOMER SERVICE, ETC?


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    FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS

    SCRUTINIZE THESE STATEMENTS…

    BALANCE SHEET

    INCOME STATEMENT

    CASH FLOW (POSITION) STATEMENT

    IF A SERIES OF ANNUAL STATEMENTS IS AVAILABLE, SELECTIVELY COMPARE RESULTS TO SEE ORGANIZATIONAL TRENDS. (GRAPH RESULTS?)

    NOTE THE PERCENTAGE CHANGES THAT OCCUR IN INDIVIDUAL CATEGORIES FROM YEAR TO YEAR.

    CREATE COMMON SIZE BALANCE SHEETS AND INCOME STATEMENTS TO MORE EASILY SEE CATEGORICAL SHIFTS AND CHANGES. (MAKE TOTAL ASSETS = 100% AND NET SALES = 100%)

    IF INFLATION HAS BEEN SIGNIFICANT, MAKE APPROPRIATE ADJUSTMENTS TO UNMASK THE TRUE OR “REAL” CHANGES & TRENDS IN THE ORGANIZATION.


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    ASSESSING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

    ORGANIZATIONAL TRENDS

    HISTORIC PERFORMANCE COMPARISONS OVER TIME

    ARE THESE TRENDS LIKELY TO CONTINUE INTO THE FUTURE?

    ARE ADJUSTMENTS NEEDED FOR INFLATION?

    COMPARISONS WITH SIMILAR FIRMS

    A--INDUSTRIAL AVERAGES (SIC Codes)

    CAN WE DETERMINE THE CORRECT CODE FOR OUR INDUSTRY?

    B--COMPARISONS WITH KEY COMPETITORS

    WHO ARE OUR TOP THREE COMPETITORS?

    CAN WE GET GOOD DATA ON THEIR RECENT PERFORMANCE?

    ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES

    STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES (Stockholder’s Reports & Meetings)

    WERE ANY OBJECTIVES SET?

    ARE THE OBJECTIVES PRECISE ENOUGH TO BE EVALUATED?

    HAVE WE MET OR EXCEEDED OUR OBJECTIVES?


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    RATIO ANALYSIS - 1

    LIQUIDITY RATIOS

    ABILITY TO MEET SHORT-TERM FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS

    CURRENT RATIO

    How much of our current assets are available to cover short-term obligations?

    (Current Assets/Current Liabilities) CA/CL

    QUICK (Acid-Test) RATIO

    Ability to pay short-term obligations without liquidating inventories

    (Current Assets - Inventories)/Current Liabilities (CA-Invent)/CL

    CASH RATIO

    How much of the current obligations can be paid with cash?

    (Cash + Cash Equivalents)/Current Liabilities (Cash + Equiv)/CL


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    RATIO ANALYSIS - 2

    LEVERAGE RATIOS

    AMOUNT OF BORROWING AND INDEBTEDNESS

    DEBT TO ASSETS RATIO

    How much of the company assets are basically financed by all forms of borrowing and indebtedness?

    Total Liabilities/Total Assets TL/TA

    DEBT TO EQUITY RATIO

    Measures the funds provided by all forms of borrowing vs the funds provided by owners

    Total Liabilities/Total Equity TL/TE

    CURRENT LIABILITIES TO EQUITY RATIO

    Measures the extent of short-term financing provided by owners

    Current Liabilities/Total Equity CL/TE


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    RATIO ANALYSIS - 3

    ACTIVITY RATIOS

    EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF CORPORATE RESOURCES

    INVENTORY TURNOVER

    The number of times that finished goods inventory was sold or cleared out in a year

    Cost of Goods Sold/Avg Finished Goods Inventory COGS/FGI

    AVERAGE COLLECTION PERIOD

    Indicates the average amount of time (in days) it takes to collect on a credit sale

    (Accounts Receivable x 365)/Annual Sales (net) (ARx365)/Tot Sales

    NET WORKING CAPITAL TURNOVER

    Measures how effectively working capital is used to generate sales

    Net Sales/(Current Assets – Current Liabilities) Tot Sales/(CA-CL)

    ASSET TURNOVER

    Measures utilization of total assets. How many sales are generated by each dollar of assets?

    Net Sales/Total Assets Tot Sales/TA


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    RATIO ANALYSIS - 4

    PROFITABILITY RATIOS

    DEGREE OF SUCCESS IN ACHIEVING DESIRED PROFIT LEVELS

    NET PROFIT MARGIN (NP)

    How much after-tax profit is generated by each dollar of sales?

    Net Profit (after taxes)/Net Sales NP/Tot Sales

    RETURN ON ASSETS (ROA)

    A measure of management efficiency. The rate of return on total assets before interest and taxes.

    Operating Income (before int + tax)/Total Assets Oper Inc/TA

    RETURN ON EQUITY (ROE)

    Measures the rate of return on the total book value of equity in the company

    Net Profit (after taxes)/Total Equity NP/TE


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    RATIO ANALYSIS - 5

    OTHER RATIOS

    EARNINGS PER SHARE (EPS)

    Shows after tax earnings generated for each share of common stock

    (Net Profit – Preferred Dividends)/Avg # Shares (NP-Pref Div)/# Shares

    PRICE/EARNINGS RATIO

    How much the investor is willing to pay for each dollar of earnings?

    Share Market Price/Earnings Per Share Stock Price/EPS

    DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO

    The percentage of profit that is paid out in dividends

    Dividends (per share)/Earnings Per Share Div (per share)/EPS

    DIVIDEND YIELD

    The dividend rate of return to common stockholders at the current market price

    Dividends (per share)/Share Market Price Dividend/Stock Price


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    ALTMAN’S Z (Bankruptcy Ratio)Altman, Journal of Business Strategy. Fall, 1983.

    Z = 1.2(A) + 1.4(B) + 3.3(C) + .6(D) + 1.0(E)

    ORIGINAL Z = FOR PUBLIC MANUFACTURERS

    A = WORKING CAPITAL/TOTAL ASSETS

    B = RETAINED EARNINGS/TOTAL ASSETS

    C = (EARNINGS BEFORE INTEREST + TAXES)/TOTAL ASSETS

    D = MARKET VALUE OF EQUITY/TOTAL LIABILITIES

    E = SALES REVENUES/TOTAL ASSETS

    - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

    IF Z > 3.0 THE FIRM ISFINANCIALLY STRONG

    IF Z < 1.8 THE FIRM IS IN SERIOUS TROUBLE


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    ALTMAN’S Z (Bankruptcy Ratio)FOR PRIVATE FIRMS (MODELS A and B)

    Z = .717(A) + .847(B) + 3.107(C) + .42(D) + .998(E)

    MODEL A = PRIVATE MFRS…..MODEL B = PRIVATE - GENERAL MANAGEMENT

    A = WORKING CAPITAL/TOTAL ASSETS

    B = RETAINED EARNINGS/TOTAL ASSETS

    C = (EARNINGS BEFORE INTEREST + TAXES)/TOTAL ASSETS

    D = MARKET VALUE OF EQUITY/TOTAL LIABILITIES

    E = SALES REVENUES/TOTAL ASSETS

    - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

    MODEL A VALUESMODEL B VALUES

    IF Z > 2.90 THE FIRM ISFINANCIALLY STRONG IF Z > 2.60

    IF Z < 1.23 THE FIRM IS IN SERIOUS TROUBLEIF Z < 1.10


    Index of sustainable growth bangs managing by the numbers upstart publ 1992 pp 106 107 l.jpg
    INDEX OF SUSTAINABLE GROWTHBangs, Managing by the Numbers, Upstart Publ, 1992, pp 106-107

    How much sales growth can be sustained by internally-generated funds?

    G* =_P (1 – D) (1 + L)___

    T – P (1 – D) (1 + L)

    P = (NET PROFIT BEFORE TAXES / NET SALES) x 100

    D = TARGET DIVIDENDS / PROFIT AFTER TAXES

    L = TOTAL LIABILITIES / NET WORTH

    T = (TOTAL ASSETS / NET SALES) x 100

    - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

    IF PLANNED GROWTH RATE > G*

    EXTERNAL CAPITAL WILL BE NEEDED TO FUND GROWTH


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    CONSUMER PRICE INDEX (for all items)US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Monthly Labor Review

    YEAR = CPI (1967=100)____YEAR = CPI (1982/84 = 100)

    1967 100.0 1980 246.8 1993 144.5

    1968 104.2 1981 272.4 1994 148.2

    1969 109.8 1982 289.1 1982 96.2 1995 152.4

    1970 116.3 1983 298.4 1983 99.6 1996 156.9

    1971 121.3 1984 311.1 1984 103.9 1997 160.5

    1972 125.3 1985 322.2 1985 107.6 1998 163.0

    1973 133.1 1986 328.4 1986 109.6 1999 166.6

    1974 147.7 1987 340.4 1987 113.6 2000 172.2

    1975 161.2 1988 354.3 1988 118.3 2001 177.1

    1976 170.5 1989 371.3 1989 124.0 2002 179.9

    1977 181.5 1990 391.4 1990 130.7 2003 184.0

    1978 195.4 1991 408.0 1991 136.2 2004 188.9

    1979 217.4 1992 420.3 1992 140.3 2005


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    ILLUSTRATED INFLATION ADJUSTMENT

    OREGON CONFERENCE TITHES

    ”THE LORD HAS GREATLY BLESSED…TITHES HAVE GROWN 18.2% DURING THE PAST TWO YEARS.”

    1979 $35 Million

    1980 $38 Million

    1981 $41.4 Million

    CPI INDICES

    1979 217.4

    1980 246.8

    1981 272.4

    TITHES CONVERTED TO CONSTANT 1979 DOLLARS

    1979 $35 Million

    1980 $33.47 Million

    1981 $33.04 Million

    WHEN ADJUSTED FOR INFLATION, TITHES HAVE DECLINED BY 5.6% DURING THE PAST TWO YEARS.


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    ASSESSING THE ORGANIZATION—A REMINDER

    ORGANIZATIONAL TRENDS

    HISTORIC PERFORMANCE COMPARISONS OVER TIME

    ARE THESE TRENDS LIKELY TO CONTINUE INTO THE FUTURE?

    ARE ADJUSTMENTS NEEDED FOR INFLATION?

    COMPARISONS WITH SIMILAR FIRMS

    A--INDUSTRIAL AVERAGES (SIC Codes)

    CAN WE DETERMINE THE CORRECT CODE FOR OUR INDUSTRY?

    B--COMPARISONS WITH KEY COMPETITORS

    WHO ARE OUR TOP THREE COMPETITORS?

    CAN WE GET GOOD DATA ON THEIR RECENT PERFORMANCE?

    ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES

    STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES (Stockholder’s Reports & Meetings)

    WERE ANY OBJECTIVES SET?

    ARE THE OBJECTIVES PRECISE ENOUGH TO BE EVALUATED?

    HAVE WE MET OR EXCEEDED OUR OBJECTIVES?


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    HOW WELL IS THE PRESENT STRATEGY WORKING?

    WHAT IS THE CURRENT STRATEGY?

    COST-LEADERSHIP

    DIFFERENTIATION

    FOCUS

    HOW MANY STAGES IN THE CHAIN DO WE OPERATE IN?

    AMOUNT OF VERTICAL INTEGRATION

    SIZE & DIVERSITY OF GEOGRAPHIC MARKETS COVERED?

    FUNCTIONAL STRATEGIES?

    MARKETING

    OPERATIONS & PRODUCTION

    FINANCE

    HUMAN RESOURCES

    EVIDENCE OF SUCCESS?

    RECENT STRATEGIC MOVES?


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    USING ORGANIZATIONAL RESOURCES TO GAIN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    RESOURCES = What are our organizational assets?

    CAPABILITY = We are able to function/perform adequately

    COMPETENCY = Something we do exceedingly well

    A CORE COMPETENCY = We do it well, all across the organization

    A DISTINCTIVE COMPETENCY = We do it better than our competitors

    Distinctive competencies may erode over time to become the minimum to compete in the industry, because competitors will try to copy or imitate successful firms.


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    EVALUATING COMPETENCIESBARNEY 2003

    VRIO ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK

    VALUE

    DOES IT PROVIDE OBVIOUS CUSTOMER VALUE AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE?

    RARENESS

    DO OUR COMPETITORS WISH THEY HAD THIS RESOURCE, BUT THEY DON’T?

    IMITABILITY

    IS IT EXTREMELY DIFFICULT TO COPY OR IMITATE?

    ORGANIZATION

    IS OUR FIRM ABLE TO TAKE FULL ADVANTAGE OF (EXPLOIT) THIS RESOURCE?

    IF THE ANSWER IS “YES” ON ALL OF THE ABOVE, WE HAVE FOUND A DISTINCTIVE COMPETENCE FOR OUR FIRM (A Clear Organizational Strength)


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    HOW WE ACQUIRE DISTINCTIVE COMPETENCIESVERDIN & WILLIAMSON 94

    WE INHERITED IT—IT’S ALWAYS BEEN A COMPANY ASSET

    SOMETHING WE OBTAINED FROM THE FOUNDER…OWNERSHIP OF A UNIQUE LOCATION, PATENT, PRODUCT OR PROCESS.

    WE ACQUIRED IT FROM SOMEONE ELSE

    SOMEONE ELSE DEVELOPED IT, BUT WE BOUGHT IT

    WE SHARE IT WITH SOMEONE ELSE

    DEVELOPED BY SOMEONE ELSE…A JOINT VENTURE OR ALLIANCE ALLOWS US ACCESS

    WE BUILT IT OURSELVES

    WE PAINSTAKINGLY DEVELOPED THIS RESOURCE “FROM SCRATCH.” THE DISTINCTIVENESS OF THIS COMPETENCY HAS EVOLVED OVER TIME.


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    SUSTAINABILITY OF A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    JUST BECAUSE YOU HAVE A DISTINCTIVE COMPETENCE OR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE DOESN’T MEAN YOU WILL BE ABLE TO KEEP IT.

    HOW QUICKLY WILL YOUR ADVANTAGE ERODE?

    HOW EASILY CAN COMPETITORS COPY YOUR ADVANTAGES?

    IS THE KEY TO YOUR ADVANTAGE TRANSPARENT?

    IS IT BASED ON EXPLICIT OR TACIT KNOWLEDGE?

    IS IT TRANSFERRABLE? …REPLICABLE?

    “OTHERS UNDERSTAND WHAT WE DO, BUT THEY CAN’T DO IT.” M Dell

    A CONTINUUM OF SUSTAINABILITY

    SLOW CYCLE – strongly shielded (patents, brand names)

    STANDARD CYCLE – production processes are a bit complicated

    FAST CYCLE – easily duplicated and idea-driven

    Can’t sustain advantages unless you’re always first from the lab to the market


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    WHERE DOES YOUR FIRM MAKE ITS MONEY?

    WHAT IS YOUR BUSINESS MODEL?

    WHERE DOES MOST OF YOUR PROFIT COME FROM?

    FROM THE PRODUCT?

    FROM UPGRADES?

    FROM SERVICES?

    FROM ADVERTISING?

    A FEW EXAMPLES OF BUSINESS MODELS

    BLOCKBUSTER

    JUST A FEW KEY PRODUCTS THAT WE A HOLD A PATENT ON (NEAR-MONOPOLY)

    PROFIT PYRAMID

    COMPANY OFFERS A COMPLETE LINE OF PRODUCTS.

    HIGHER PRICED (Luxury) MODELS ARE WHERE MOST OF THE PROFIT IS MADE

    MULTI-COMPONENT SYSTEM

    SELL COMPUTERS VIRTUALLY AT COST, MAKE MONEY ON PRINTERS & INK

    ADVERTISING MEDIA

    PRODUCT IS BASICALLY FREE TO THE PUBLIC (TV, RADIO, INTERNET) ADVERTISERS PAY FOR EXPOSURE OF THEIR ADS THROUGH THIS “FREE” VENUE


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    A REMINDER OF WHAT TO CONSIDER

    FINANCIAL & MARKET PERFORMANCE (Strengths/Weaknesses)

    FINANCIAL INDICATORS

    • RATIOS, FINANCIAL COMPARISONS, TRENDS

      STRATEGIC MARKET INDICATORS

    • MARKET SHARE, PENETRATION, TRENDS

      INTERNAL ORGANIZATION (Distinctive Competencies/Weaknesses)

      PERSONNEL -- Top Management, Professional Expertise

      STRUCTURE -- Authority, Accountability, Communication, Decision-Making

      CORPORATE CULTURE -- Norms, Historic ways of doing things

      PHYSICAL RESOURCES -- Equipment, Buildings, Locations

      COMPETENCE OF KEY DEPARTMENTS -- Mktg, R&D, Operations, IS

      OBJECTIVES & STRATEGIES (Successes/Failures)

      CLARITY AND FOCUS OF MISSION/VISION

      PRECISION AND LOGIC OF STRATEGIC CORPORATE OBJECTIVES

      “FIT” & SUCCESS OF COMPETITIVE (Business-level) STRATEGIES

      “FIT” & SUCCESS WITH CORPORATE (Investment-level) STRATEGIES

      SUCCESS WITH IMPLEMENTING DEPARTMENTAL STRATEGIES

      SUMMARY OF ORGANIZATIONAL CONDITION

      Summarize the distinctive competencies and strengths and the glaring organizational weaknesses and failures you’ve detected at this firm.


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    ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSISOF STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES

    • HAS OUR ORGANIZATION BEEN FINANCIALLY COMPETITIVE?

      • SCRUTINIZE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

  • WERE OUR STRATEGIC MARKETING OBJECTIVES ACHIEVED?

    • STRATEGIC CORPORATE OBJECTIVES

  • ARE OUR PRICES AND COSTS COMPETITIVE?

    • VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS

  • WHAT ARE OUR DISTINCTIVE COMPETENCIES & RESOURCES?

    • PERSONNEL, STRUCTURE, PHYSICAL RESOURCES, DEPARTMENTS

  • HOW STRONG IS OUR COMPETITIVE POSITION?

    • COMPETITIVE ASSESSMENT WITH KEY SUCCESS FACTORS

  • HOW WELL ARE OUR PRESENT STRATEGIES WORKING?

    • COMPETITIVE, CORPORATE, FUNCTIONAL

      IN SUMMARY, WHAT ARE THE TOP STRENGTHS AND THE GREATEST WEAKNESSES THIS ORGANIZATION POSSESSES?