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Games Author: David Bish Project Editor/Director of Studies EF Manchester David Lecturing in Berlin
Games in theLanguage Classroom • Games vs Play • What can we gain from Games? • Effective Language Games • Varieties of Language Games • Difficulties using games in the classroom
Play My work is a game, a very serious game. M. C. Escher (1898 - 1972) If life doesn't offer a game worth playing, then invent a new one. Anthony J. D'Angelo (1972 -) Play is an occasion of pure waste: waste of time, energy, ingenuity, skill, and often of money. Roger Caillois (1913-1978) When you play, play hard; when you work, don't play at all. Theodore Roosevelt (1858 - 1919) If you want creative workers, give them enough time to play. John Cleese (1939 - )
Games vs Play Professor Jim Whitehead • Play is free-form • Games are rule-based
Player Effort Professor Jim Whitehead • Games are challenging • Games often contain a conflict • Players influence the state of the game and its outcome • A player needs to work to win a game
Games in textbooks • Activities ? • Tools ? • Games ?
What can we gain from games? • Challenge • A student needs to work to win a game • Changing the pace of a lesson • Allowing working and thinking differently • Motivation • Authenticity
Testing Language Learning Games Runablity Is it easy/practical to run/control/set up in a language class? Authenticity Is it authentic? (Would native speakers do it?) Authentic games are fun and challenging to play Challenge Does it challenge the students linguistically at their level? Use Does it Promote language use? Syllabus Does it meet a syllabus/learning need? plus look for an eXtendable/adaptable framework
Testing Language Learning Games Runablity Authenticity Challenge Use Syllabus eXtendability Classic Noughts & Crosses (Tic Tac Toe) in at on There were… After that.. In time... by to of It wouldn’t say that... but… At first.. It was... with from for Suddenly... Nobody… Eventually...
Testing Language Learning Games Word Games • Boggle/How many words • Board Scrabble • Word searches / Crosswords • Anagrams • Taboo / Back to the board Runablity Authenticity Challenge Use Syllabus eXtendability
Testing Language Learning Games Board and card games • MonopolyTM • ScrabbleTM • Snakes and ladders • Ludo • Dominoes • Packs of cards (made by students?) Runablity Authenticity Challenge Use Syllabus eXtendability
Testing Language Learning Games TV / Quiz Games • University challenge • Who wants to be a millionaire? • The missing link • Blind date • Just a minute • Blankety Blank • Blockbusters • What is on TV where you teach? Runablity Authenticity Challenge Use Syllabus eXtendability
Testing Language Learning Games Business Games / Simulations Runablity Authenticity Challenge Use Syllabus eXtendability • Task Based Learning or Games? • Role play: • “Simulation” or “Real Play”
Difficulties and Solutions • “I am too old for games.” • “This is not acceptable.” • “We aren’t learning.” • “We are wasting time.” • “Games are too expensive.”
Bibliography / Reading List Guidance for teachers: Scrivener, Jim, Learning Teaching, second edition (Macmillan 2005) Ur, Penny & Wright, Andrew, Five-Minute Activities (CUP 1992) Popular EFL Classroom Games books: Davis Paul & Rinvolucri, Mario, More Grammar Games (CUP, 1995) Hadfield, Jill, Communication Games (Beginner to Advanced) (Longman, 2000) Hancock, Mark, Pronunciation Games (CUP, 1996) Kay, Sue Reward Resouce Pack (Starter to Advanced) (Macmillan, 1998) Rinvolucri, Mario, Grammar Games (CUP, 1985) Philosophy of games and language: Caillois, Roger, Man, Play and Games (University of Illinois Press 2001) Eco, Umberto, Kant and the Platypus:Essays on Language and Cognition (Harcourt Brace 1999) Harris, Roy, Language, Saussure and Wittgenstein: How to Play Games with Words (Routledge 1988) Whitehead, Jim, Classic Game definition (University of California 2006)Available: www.cse.ucsc.edu/classes/cmps080k/Winter06/lectures/classic-game-defn-01092006.pdf