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Forest Valuation and Appraisal. The major organization for consulting foresters who do appraisal work. Valuation. Calculating the value an “investor” places on “property”, NPV WPL (SEV) of buyer Reservation price of seller “Instinctive” value Uses of valuations Offering price

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forest valuation and appraisal

Forest Valuation and Appraisal

The major organization for consulting

foresters who do appraisal work.

  • Calculating the value an “investor” places on “property”,
    • NPV
    • WPL (SEV) of buyer
    • Reservation price of seller
    • “Instinctive” value
  • Uses of valuations
    • Offering price
    • Asking price
  • Process of estimating “market value”
    • Average expected selling price for similar property
    • Goal is to obtain the “fair market value”
      • Def. – Price at which a willing seller and a willing buyer will trade, neither being under compulsion to trade, and both having access to all knowledge relevant to the transaction

Source of technical literature and training

  • Uses
    • Taxes
      • Assessment for property tax levy
      • Basis of property
    • Amount of loan collateral
    • Estimate damages for insurance or law suites
stumpage valuation
Stumpage Valuation
  • What buyers pay for standing timber ready for harvest
    • Possible buyers
      • Logger
      • Saw or veneer mill timber buyer
      • Broker of logs or standing timber
        • Broker – buy for resale
          • accumulate specific products for buyers
          • broker knows her/his customers
stumpage valuation from buyer s perspective
Stumpage Valuation -- from buyer’s perspective
  • Stumpage is a residual, or conversion return
    • Value of veneer or lumber
      • Less milling cost
      • Less overhead for procurement and working capital
    • Delivered log price
      • Less cost of logging and hauling
      • Less overhead for procurement and working capital, equals
    • Stumpage value
      • Might be called “willingness to pay” for stumpage, WPS
valuation factors
Valuation Factors
  • Price of lumber, veneer, or pulp
  • Efficiency of processing plant
  • Proximity of stand to mills or brokers’ yards
  • Price expectations of buyers
  • Season of the year
stumpage valuation from sellers perspective
Stumpage Valuation-- from sellers perspective
  • Reservation price
    • Price below which an owner won’t sell stumpage
  • Why aren’t conversion return and reservation price always the same?
    • Unrealistic perception of timber values
    • Non-consumptive value given to timber in-situ
measures of value
Measures of Value
  • WPL (bare land)
    • Even-aged management equa. 9-7
    • Uneven-aged management, equa. 8-5
    • Holding value of immature even-aged timber, equa. 7-14
    • NPV of uneven-aged forest, equa 8-6
  • WPL is an investor’s maximum willingness to pay for an income-producing asset, but it’s not necessarily the market value
valuation of large tracts of timber
Valuation of Large “Tracts” of Timber
  • Old growth
  • Young timber
  • Impacts of loans
old growth timber valuation
Old-Growth Timber Valuation
  • Consider timber only, not land
  • Volume too large to harvest in one year
  • Timber value in year zero is less than sum of future harvest values, as determined by “timber valuation factor” which equals,

NPV of future timber harvests

current stumpage value of entire volume

old growth valuation factors rhvg 6 inc tax 38 infla 5 mgt cost 2 of harvest value
Old Growth Valuation FactorsRHVG – 6%, Inc. Tax – 38%, Infla. – 5%, Mgt. cost – 2% of harvest value
young timber
Young Timber
  • Collection of various aged thrifty young growth stands to be cut at different times
    • Timber’s NPV will likely exceed stumpage value
      • Not true if real interest rates are high and buyers are pessimistic about future stumpage prices
impact of loan on property valuation
Impact of Loan on Property Valuation
  • Leverage – use of existing equity to borrow funds to purchase additional business assets
  • Loans are denominated in current dollars
    • Payments not adjusted for inflation
    • Loan rate is adjusted by lender for expected inflation rate and risk
      • Example – 5% real rate (3% risk-free plus 2% risk), and inflation rate is expected to be 6%, nominal rate should be 91.05 x 1.06) – 1 = 0.113, or 11.3%
impact of loan on property valuation20
Impact of Loan on Property Valuation
  • Example cont. – Borrow $100,000 at 11.3% for 10 years
    • Annual payment using capital recovery multiplier

100,000 (0.113/(1-1.113-10)) = $17,194.31

impact of loan on property valuation21
Impact of Loan on Property Valuation
  • Impact of loan on NPV
    • Principal enters as a revenue
    • Payments enter as costs
      • Payments are discounted with risk free interest rate since payments are legal obligations
        • Continuing with example above, discount rate for loan payments would be (1.03 x 1.06) – 1 = 0.0918, 9.18%
    • NPV loan = principal less PV of payments

$100,000 – $17,194.31 (1-(1.0918)-10 / 0.0918)

$100,000 – $109,478.28


impact of loan on property valuation22
Impact of Loan on Property Valuation
  • If investor had used a higher discount rate, say 14%, the PV of loan would have been $10,312.49
  • This would overstate the PV of the loan by $19,790.77, which is
    • $10,312.49 – (-$9,478.28)
  • Result would be overbidding for properties
  • Impact reduced on after basis because interest payments usually tax deductible
appraising market value
Appraising Market Value
  • Appraisal methods
    • Comparable sales
    • Capitalized income
    • Replacement cost
  • Goal of appraisal is estimation of most-likely selling price, not an average price
appraisal by comparable sales
Appraisal by Comparable Sales
  • Use depends on availability of sales data
    • Data base is a valuable business asset
  • Factors consider in making comparisons
    • Species mix
    • Quality
    • Average diameter
    • Product mix
    • Terrain
    • Date of sale
    • Distance from mills
    • Road building and logging costs
    • Log scale used
    • Type of harvest
    • Size of sale
    • Terms of sale – cash at closing, pay-as-cut, installments
    • Liability for severance or other harvest tax
adjusting sales to make them comparable
Adjusting Sales to Make Them Comparable
  • Regression analysis
    • Unit price made a function of sale characteristics
    • Requires sales data for a relatively short time period
      • Or, use trend line as independent variable
    • The larger the number of factors (independent variables), the larger the data base required
  • Adjustment factors, non-statistical method
    • Experienced appraisers make adjustments based on
      • Knowledge of market, or
      • Published factors
appraisal by capitalized income
Appraisal by Capitalized Income
  • Referred to as income appraisal or income approach
  • It’s simply a NPV calculation, but based on most likely conditions, not the conditions for a specific person
  • Used of necessity when no comparable sales are available
  • Not useful if non-income benefits are the major output of a property
appraisal by capitalized income assumptions
Appraisal by Capitalized Income --Assumptions
  • Use regional average yields
  • Project prices with trend-lines for real prices
  • Proper discount rate to use is difficult to estimate
    • Derived capitalization rate – discount rate used by average buyer in computing price paid for a property
      • Estimate like IRR for sample properties by assuming cash flows and finding r that results in observed sales price
appraisal by replacement cost
Appraisal by Replacement Cost
  • Useful if
    • Trees were planted within the last “few” (less than 6) years
    • Land with timber recently purchased
  • Assumption is that market price reflects the initial costs, but the further out in time the valuation date is, the less likely it is that past costs affect market price.
    • Sunk costs don’t matter!!!!
appraisal by replacement cost29
Appraisal by Replacement Cost
  • Calculate “Forest NPV”
  • Then, compound Forest NPV forward to valuation year, y, and add annual cost,
  • This is more like the seller’s asking price based on her costs

Ht + Lt 1-(1+r) -(t-y)

+ (a-c)

(1+r)t-y r

Forest NPV (1+r)y + c ((1+r)y -1)/r

appraisal by replacement cost30
Appraisal by Replacement Cost
  • Guideline for income approach
    • When discounting enter incomes as positives and costs as negatives
  • Guideline for replacement cost approach
    • When compounding historical costs, enter costs as positives and revenues as negatives