Ebola Virus. Hemorrhagic Fever. Outbreaks. 1976- First Major Outbreak (ZEBOV) 1976- Sudan (SEBOV) Occur Sporadically www.cdc.gov for more information. Where does Ebola hide?. 2002- Fruit Bats Antibodies against Ebola Ebola Gene sequences in liver and spleen
-Outbreaks occurred in countries that house 80 percent of the world’s remaining wild gorilla and chimpanzee populations.
- The outbreaks coincided with the outbreaks in wild animals.
- The same distinct viral strains were isolated in animal carcasses and in the bodies of those who handled those carcasses.
- These outbreaks were preceded by an abnormally large death in wild Gorilla populations.
-Extreme asthenia (body weakness)
-diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, anorexia
- arthralgia (neuralgic pain in joints)
- myalgia (muscular pain or tenderness), back pain
- mucosal redness of the oral cavity, dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing)
- rash all over body except in face
** If the patients don’t recover gradually at this point, there is a high probability that the disease will progress to the second phase, resulting in complications which eventually lead to death (Mupapa et al., 1999).
- neuropsychiatric abnormalities
- anuria (the absence of urine formation)
- tachypnea (rapid breathing).
** Patients who progressed to phase two EHF almost always die. (Ndambi et al., 1999)
- ocular diseases (ocular pain, photophobia and hyperlacrimation)
- hearing loss
- unilateral orchitis( inflammation of one or both of the testes)
** These conditions are usually relieved with the treatment of 1% atropine and steroids
Ebola HF prevention poster used in Kikwit outbreak.
1. wearing gloves
2. isolating infected individuals
3. practicing nurse barrier techniques
4. proper sterilization and disposal of all equipment
1. no washing or touching carcass
2. put into body bags and bury outside city
bases/nucleotides) or 60-80 nm in diameter