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Ebola Virus. Hemorrhagic Fever. Outbreaks. 1976- First Major Outbreak (ZEBOV) 1976- Sudan (SEBOV) Occur Sporadically www.cdc.gov for more information. Where does Ebola hide?. 2002- Fruit Bats Antibodies against Ebola Ebola Gene sequences in liver and spleen

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ebola virus

Ebola Virus

Hemorrhagic Fever

outbreaks
Outbreaks
  • 1976- First Major Outbreak (ZEBOV)
  • 1976- Sudan (SEBOV)
  • Occur Sporadically
  • www.cdc.gov for more information
where does ebola hide
Where does Ebola hide?
  • 2002- Fruit Bats
  • Antibodies against Ebola
  • Ebola Gene sequences in liver and spleen
  • Fruit bats do not show any symptoms
  • Best candidate to be the reservoir
  • More research needs to be done
geography
Geography
  • The link between human infection by the Ebola virus and their proximity to primates is clear.

-Outbreaks occurred in countries that house 80 percent of the world’s remaining wild gorilla and chimpanzee populations.

- The outbreaks coincided with the outbreaks in wild animals.

- The same distinct viral strains were isolated in animal carcasses and in the bodies of those who handled those carcasses.

- These outbreaks were preceded by an abnormally large death in wild Gorilla populations.

clinical observations
Clinical Observations
  • Incubation period: 2-21 days
  • Stage I (unspecific):

-Extreme asthenia (body weakness)

-diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, anorexia

abdominal pain

- headaches

- arthralgia (neuralgic pain in joints)

- myalgia (muscular pain or tenderness), back pain

- mucosal redness of the oral cavity, dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing)

- conjunctivitis.

- rash all over body except in face

** If the patients don’t recover gradually at this point, there is a high probability that the disease will progress to the second phase, resulting in complications which eventually lead to death (Mupapa et al., 1999).

slide6
Stage II (Specific):

- Hemorrhage

- neuropsychiatric abnormalities

- anuria (the absence of urine formation)

- hiccups

- tachypnea (rapid breathing).

** Patients who progressed to phase two EHF almost always die. (Ndambi et al., 1999)

  • Late Complications:

-Arthralgia

- ocular diseases (ocular pain, photophobia and hyperlacrimation)

- hearing loss

- unilateral orchitis( inflammation of one or both of the testes)

** These conditions are usually relieved with the treatment of 1% atropine and steroids

epidemiology
Epidemiology
  •  Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever was first found in 1976
  • It struck two countries within that year
  • a.  Sudan – in a town called N’zara
  • b.  Zaire, now known as the Democratic Republic of Congo
  •   In these two instances the mortality rate was between

50 –90%

  • Following those epidemics, Ebola hit Africa in many other instances the worst yet being in the year 2000 when it struck Uganda infecting more than 400 people.
transmission
Transmission
  • contracted through contact of any infected individual’s body fluids

Ebola HF prevention poster used in Kikwit outbreak.

controlling the spread of ebola
Controlling the spread of Ebola
  • a. Hospitals must follow precautionary methods, such as: 

1.      wearing gloves

2.      isolating infected individuals

3.      practicing nurse barrier techniques

4.      proper sterilization and disposal of all equipment

  • b.  Burials must be done correctly

1.      no washing or touching carcass

2.      put into body bags and bury outside city

  • c. Report any questionable illness to officials                   
ebola subtypes
Ebola Subtypes
  • Ebola-Zaire

(ZEBOV)

  • Ebola-Sudan (SEBOV)
  • Ebola Ivory-Coast (ICEBOV)
  • Ebola-Reston (REBOV)
molecular structure
MOLECULAR STRUCTURE
  • Characterization of the virus
    • Order: Mononegavirales
    • Family: Filoviridae
    • Genus: Ebolavirus
    • Species: Ebola-Zaire, Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Cote d-Ivoire, Ebola-Reston
  • Morphology under electron microscope
    • filamentous, enveloped RNA virus
    • approx. 19 kb in length (1 kb = 1000 RNA

bases/nucleotides) or 60-80 nm in diameter

    • single-stranded, linear, non-segmented
    • negative-sense RNA (encoded in a 3’ to 5’ direction)
    • appears to have “spikes” due to glycoprotein on

outside membrane

slide12
Structure of Ebola genome and proteins
    • Transcribed into 8 sub-genomic mRNA proteins: 7 structural and 1 nonstructural
    • 7 structural proteins:
        • nucleoprotein (NP)
        • 4 viral/virion proteins (VP35, VP40, VP30, VP24)
        • glycoprotein (GP)
        • RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L protein)
          • NP, VP35, VP30, L protein: required for transcription & replication
          • VP40, GP, VP24: associated with the membrane
ethics
Ethics
  • Biogeograophical Ethics is defined as motivation based on ideas of right and wrong when dealing with the geographical distribution of animals and plants.
  • This concept of can be used to explain the world’s shockingly small response to the Ebola Virus.
  • Because there was little travel to that region by people of more developed countries, there was not much economic drive for a vaccine, treatment, and aid in prevention.
bioterrorism
Bioterrorism
  • Since the September 11 bombings in the United States, the locality of this virus has become less isolated as the threat of bioterrorism looms large.
  • The Ebola virus is now on the “A” list for hopeful vaccination development.
  • Experiments have even been formed to show how Ebola can be used as a bioterror agent.