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Ebola Virus. By: Giselle and Matt. Family of Ebola Virus. Filoviridae Comes from the Latin filo meaning “threadlike” Two members Marburg Ebola Virus Five Species Zaire Sudan Reston Ivory Coast Bundibugyo. https://www.imss.org/shop/img/big/ebola.jpg. Filovirus. Very in shape

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ebola virus

Ebola Virus

By: Giselle and Matt

family of ebola virus
Family of Ebola Virus

Filoviridae

Comes from the Latin filo meaning “threadlike”

Two members

Marburg

Ebola Virus

Five Species

Zaire

Sudan

Reston

Ivory Coast

Bundibugyo

https://www.imss.org/shop/img/big/ebola.jpg

filovirus
Filovirus

Very in shape

long sometimes branched filaments

Shorter filaments shaped like a “6” or “U” sometimes a circle.

Filaments measure from 80nm (Average) to 14,000nm.

Enveloped virion

Single-strand negative sense RNA

Proteins

Five proteins in filoviruses

Glycoprotein

Nucleocapsid

Transcriptase-polymerase

RNA dependent RNA transcriptase polymerase

matrix

http://s3.amazonaws.com/mmc-digi-beta-production/assets/9929/ebola_article.jpg

history
History

Discovered in 1974.

Received it named from the first victims found from the Ebola River Valley in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

strains
Strains

Zaire

90% mortality rate.

276 out of 300 died.

Sudan

50% morality rate.

150 out of 285 died.

Reston

Found 1989

infected monkeys in the Philippines

The only airborne strain of Ebola virus.

Later found that this strain is not harmful to humans but very devastating to monkeys.

However four people known to have developed antibodies to this strain.

Ivory Coast

Found in monkey being autopsied by a scientist in 1994.

Scientist became ill from the virus but survived.

Bundibugyo

Most recently discovered strain of Ebola virus.

Has less power to kill when compared to other strains.

25%morality rate.

37 out of 150 died.

http://us-cdn.creamermedia.co.za/assets/articles/images/resized/38935_resized_newebolastrain.jpg

symptoms
Symptoms

•High fever

•Muscle aches

•Sore throat

•Fatigue

Followed by:

•Stomach pain

•Diarrhea

•Rash

•Vomiting

Some may experience:

Internal and external bleeding

http://tbn1.google.com/images?q=tbn:WlRR-SZJ1Vr5vM:http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_PDbJY8bhKvI/SN8ZhlvmHEI/AAAAAAAAABo/dqb85gVB8mE/s320/HY_ebola_01.jpg

virion replication
Virion Replication
  • Enveloped viron
    • membrane surrounding the virus.
  • Phospholipids bilayer
    • With embedded proteins (spikes)
      • Facilitate penetration of the virus into the host’s cell’s cytoplasm.
  • Adsorption
    • Spike shape complements a host’s cell protein.
    • Ebola attaches and is endocytosed into the cell.
  • Penetration
    • The virus membrane fuses to the hosts membrane.
    • Nucleocapsid is released into the cytoplasm.
  • Synthesis
    • Occurs in the cytoplasm
    • Make more
    • Capsid proteins
    • Genome
    • Host uses host mechanisms
      • Transcription- used to synthesize (-) sense RNA for encapsulation
      • Translation- make more viral proteins.
slide9

Virion Replication Continued..

  • Maturation
    • Assembly of new virions made inside the cytoplasm.
  • Release
    • The Ebola virus uses the TSG101 pathway.
      • This is the same pathway as HIV .
    • Exocytosis
      • Newly formed Ebola Virus bud from cell membrane and released.
      • Infected host cell remains alive to continue viral replication.

http://content.nejm.org/content/vol352/issue25/images/large/17f1.jpeg

cell ebola targets
Cell Ebola targets

The main cells it will attack are

fibroblastic reticular cells

which form much of the connective tissue.

These cells are under the skin and close by to blood and lymph vessels.

This allows the virus to spread easily in the body.

Ebola will then go on and attack any other connective tissue and epithelial tissue.

This is what causes the hemorrhaging portion of the symptoms.

The virus then moves on to liver and kidney cells.

evading the immune system
Evading the Immune System

Ebola once again works similar to HIV in how it evades the immune system.

There is a cellular protein called tetherin

This protein does not save the infected cell.

It prevents the virions from budding off into endosome and escaping.

Ebola disables tetherin like HIV does.

This allows the virus to bud out of the cell.

transmission from host to host
Transmission from host to host

The virus spreads similar to HIV.

    • It spreads through bloody fluids such a blood, semen, and feces.
    • The only exception is the Reston Ebola virus
      • shown to be air born
      • lucky for us it only attacks monkeys.
      • The outbreaks usually happen when a human gets the disease from an animal.
        • This is known as a zoonotic infection (from animal to human).
        • Then the infected person infects family and friends and hospital staff.
  • This can be contributed to the fact these outbreaks happen some of the poorest nations .
    • In the nations of Africa there is a severe lack of resources especially in medicine. The nurses have limited or no personal protective equipment.
    • They also have to reuse syringes that do not get cleaned properly.
    • This not only spreads Ebola, but it also spreads HIV and other diseases.
vaccine
Vaccine

Experimental vaccine

Being evaluated on infected primates.

Vaccine has a recombinant inhibitor factor.

33% survival rate

Although this experimental vaccine shows promising results there are no anti-viral drugs available for clinical use.

biohazard
Biohazard

The lack of a cure and vaccine makes Ebola a level 4 biohazard.

Level 4 biohazards are kept in special labs known as level 4 biosafety labs.

The first level is for microbial agents that do not cause harm to humans.

The second level is for microbial agents that do cause human disease but transmission is limited.

The third level is for microbial agents that cause severe infections and easily transmitted to humans.

The fourth level is for microbial agents that have no cure or vaccine. They are also highly contagious and pose a significant health threat.

http://www.orthomed.com/ebola.gif

treatment
Treatment

Isolation of the virus for 2-22 days.

There is no treatment for filoviruses.

Treatments of symptoms:

Keeping fluid and electrolyte levels

balanced.

Maintaining blood pressure and oxygen

levels.

Blood transfusions.

Cause of death:

Normally

Organ shock or failure associated with fluid and blood loss.

It is still unknown why some infected recover while others die. But those that die have not had a significant immune response before death.

http://msnbcmedia.msn.com/j/MSNBC/Components/Photo/_new/090327-ebola-scientist-hmed.300w.jpg

bioterrorism
Bioterrorism

The possibility of a bioterrorist

attack using Ebola is unlikely.

The natural reservoir is

unknown.

The virus is held in highly

guarded labs.

Ebola would make an effective

Weapon because of:

the fear it would instill in

people.

how quickly the virus kills and spreads.