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Section 4. Best Practices for Taxi Operations at Towered & Non-Towered Airports. Challenges facing Air Crews and Air Traffic Controllers. Taxi operations may be difficult and hazardous Aircrew workload during taxi has increased. Challenges facing Air Crews and Air Traffic Controllers.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Section 4

Best Practices for Taxi Operations at Towered & Non-Towered Airports

slide2

Challenges facing Air Crews and Air Traffic Controllers

  • Taxi operations may be difficult and hazardous
  • Aircrew workload during taxi has increased
slide3

Challenges facing Air Crews and Air Traffic Controllers

  • Air traffic volume increases yearly
  • Air Traffic System is more complex
  • Airport layout design is more complicated

Technology improvements at airports have not kept pace with demand

slide4

Taxi Operations at Towered Airports

  • Conduct Pre-Taxi Planning
  • Study airport diagram BEFORE taxi
  • Identify complex intersections and potential runway crossings
  • Plan timing of checklists and conduct them while stopped
  • Plan timing of company communications
  • Listen to ATIS

CAUTION:Follow the taxi clearance or instructions that are ACTUALLY received and not those EXPECTED to be received.

slide5

Write Down Taxi Instructions

  • Copying complex taxi instructions can reduce a pilot’s vulnerability to forgetting.
  • “Cessna 34 Papa Uniform, taxi to Runway 19 right, at Alpha 3 intersection departure, via Taxiway Charlie to Taxiway Alpha, hold short of Runway 19 right.”

NOTE: Common sense should be used in determining this need. Don’t be afraid to ask for “progressive taxi directions”

slide6

Maintain Situational Awareness

  • Be vigilant if instructed to “taxi into position and hold”
  • Be extremely cautious when directed to use a runway as a taxiway
slide7

Maintain Situational Awareness (con’t)

Monitor ATC instructions issued

to other aircraft

LOOK before crossing intersecting

taxiways or runways

slide8

Maintain Situational Awareness (con’t)

Use extra caution

At Night

or in periods of reduced visibility

slide9

Maintain Situational Awareness (con’t)

Know where you are and where you’re going

Use utmost caution when exiting the runway if the exit taxiway intersects with another runway (see next three examples)

slide10

Note: Because of the relative short Taxiway D stub, the hold markings are not SEQUENCED in the “usual order” as one would expect to see exiting either runway.

Following landing, blue aircraft has been instructed to “hold short” Runway 4. Blue aircraft is expected to hold at this position even if the aircraft has not cleared the landing runway and remains inside the safety area for Runway 35. Follow ATC instructions.

Runway Safety Area for 35

Runway Safety Area for 4

D

35

4

35

4

D

slide11

32R

Runway Safety Area 14L/32R

Following landing, the orange aircraft has been instructed to “hold short” Runway 14L. THE ORANGE AIRCRAFT IS EXPECTED TO HOLD AT THIS POSITION EVEN IF IT HAS NOT CLEARED THE LANDING RUNWAY AND REMAINS INSIDE THE SAFETY AREA FOR RUNWAY 14R/32L. (black circle)

Runway Safety Area 14R/32L

14R

32L

slide12

Following landing the blue aircraft is expected to clear the hold position marking associated with the landing runway (black circle) unless otherwise instructed by ATC. The orange aircraft has been instructed to “hold short” Runway 14L.

Runway Safety Area 14L/32R

32R

Runway Safety Area 14L/32R

Runway Safety Area 14R/32L

14R

32L

slide13

Coordinate Crew Communications

  • On taxi instructions for takeoff
  • On identifying runway intersections
  • On identifying the correct departure runway
  • On performing other “heads down” cockpit tasks
slide14

Coordinate Crew Communications

  • On landing and hold short clearance
  • On ATC instructions to parking
  • Before crossing hold short lines
slide15

Maintain the “Communication Loop”

  • Maintain a “sterile cockpit”
  • Use standard ATC phraseology
  • Focus on what ATC is instructing
  • Read back all hold short and runway crossing instructions.

NOTE:Air Traffic Controllers are required to obtain from the pilot a readback of all runway hold short instructions

slide16

THE TWO MOST COMMON PILOT ERRORS RESULT IN RUNWAY INCURSIONS ARE:

  • Taxiing onto the runway after acknowledging
  • ATC “hold short” instructions.
  • Taking off without clearance.
slide17

Aircraft #1 is holding on the runway for an intersection departure runway 14 at taxiway Echo while aircraft #2, is told to “taxi into position and hold”.

Potential “TRAP

A/C 2

As the pilot of either aircraft,

what should you be listening for?

A/C 1

Answer: ATC will soon give takeoff clearance to one of the aircraft holding on the runway. Ensure that clearance is directed to A/C 1.

slide18

Aircraft # 1 is landing runway 35L and told to “If able, turn right Taxiway Kilo” while aircraft # 2 is given landing clearance to same runway.

As the pilot of aircraft 2,

what are you expecting to happen?

Answer: As pilot of A/C 2 you are expecting A/C 1 to clear the runway prior to your crossing the runway threshold or ATC to instruct you to “go around”.

A/C 2

A/C 1

slide19

Keep “Heads UP” When Taxiing

  • PRIOR TO TAXI, have a copy of and be familiar with the airport diagram
  • Use the compass or heading display to supplement orientation
  • Use all resources during “low” visibility taxiing
  • If uncertain of position, STOP and advise ATC
  • Inform ATC of any delay on runway when crossing or taking off
slide20

CAUTION

DO NOT exit onto another runway after landing without ATC clearance.

DO NOT stop on a runway. If possible, taxi off the runway and then initiate communications with ATC to regain your orientation.

slide21

Recommend Review Advisory Circulars

AC 91-73 and AC 120-74

These circulars contain information concerning flight crew procedures during taxi operations.

Additional information on this subject can be obtained from the local Flight Standards District Office

slide22

Taxi Operations at NON-TOWERED Airports

or at airports without an operating control tower

Use Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) - always!

CAUTION: Some aircraft operating at the airport may not be radio equipped.

  • Familiarize yourself with the local traffic pattern. Not all airports use a standard traffic pattern.
  • Be especially alert during calm winds. Aircraft may be utilizing an instrument approach to a runway other than the one in use for VFR operations..
  • Remember to check Airport Facility Directories, NOTAMS, and airport web sites for site specific information.
slide23

Taxi Operations at NON-TOWERED Airports

or at airports without an operating control tower

Use CTAF - always!

Use extreme caution when operating from a runway where the opposite end of the runway is not visible.

CAUTION: Some aircraft operating at the airport may not be radio equipped.

slide24

Taxi Operations at NON-TOWERED Airports

or at airports without an operating control tower

Be vigilant if terrain features blocks the view of the approach end of crossing runways.

CAUTION: Some aircraft operating at the airport may not be radio equipped.

Use CTAF - always!

slide25

Taxi Operations at NON-TOWERED Airports

  • Scan the full length of the runway before crossing
  • Maintain a “Sterile Cockpit”
  • Use CTAF - always!
slide26

Avoid a Surface Incident

CTAF – Use It!

Self Announce Your Position and Intentions

At Towered Airports

(when the tower is not operating)

and

at Non-Towered Airports

Check Airport/Facility Directory (AFD) for Frequencies

CTAF frequency @ this airport: ___________________

A Fully Developed Surface Incident = An ACCIDENT!

slide27

Maintain Situational Awareness

Hold Sign

Hold Line

  • Monitor the appropriate frequency for other traffic activity
  • Monitor approach control, if possible, to alert you to IFR traffic inbound
  • Use exterior lighting to be more conspicuous

Where is the hold position?

slide28

Communications at Non-Towered Airports

  • Ensure your radio is tuned to the appropriate CTAF frequency
  • Listen before transmitting
  • Always state the name of the airport at the beginning and end of the transmission
  • Transmit intentions clearly but be brief
  • Use your full call sign when broadcasting
slide29

Recommend Review Advisory Circulars

AC 90-42 and AC 90-66

These circulars contain information concerning

operations at airports WITHOUT operating Control Towers.

Additional information on this subject can be obtained from the local Flight Standards District Office

slide33

LOOK, LISTEN, and

EXPECT the unexpected!

slide34

If You Operate From a Towered

  • or Non-towered Airport
  • Plan Your Taxi Route
  • Understand Your Taxi Route
  • Execute Your Taxi Route!

End of Section 4