Oppositional Defiant DisorderDealing With Defiance In Your Classroom • Presented By: Julie Ackerman 8th Grade Science Teacher
Why Educate Ourselves About ODD? • Because each year we can expect to have at least 1 student with ODD, and several more that exhibit oppositional behavior at some time. • Because our lives will be a lot easier, and our classes will be more productive, if we know how to deal with oppositional behavior. • Because all students have the right to learn in our classes, even those with ODD. • Because good teachers know that there are no bad students, just bad behaviors. When we appropriately deal with the bad behaviors we get to see how awesome the student can truly be.
Definition of ODD • Oppositional Defiant Disorder is the persistent pattern (lasting for at least 6 months) of disobedient, hostile, negativistic, and defiant behavior in a child or teen without serious violation of the basic rights of others (mentalhealth.com). • If a student displays the same kinds of behavior that DOES violate the basic rights of others it is often labeled conduct disorder. Children with ODD often become adults with conduct disorder if the right steps aren’t taken to control the behavior. (Bailey and Northey and Silverman and Wells 2003)
Signs of ODD(Kirby 2002) • Oppositional Behaviors: • Often loses temper. • Often argues with adults. • Often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults’ requests or rules. • Often deliberately annoys people. • Often blames others for his/her mistakes or misbehavior. • Is often touchy or easily annoyed by others. • Is often angry or resentful. • Is often spiteful or vindictive.
The Statistics • Studies show that ODD presents in 5-15% of all school aged children. (aacap.org) • ODD is reported in boys almost twice as much as it is reported in girls. (Carlson and Gaub and Tamm 1997). • 50% of the children diagnosed with ODD are also diagnosed with ADHD. (Birmaher and Burke and Loeber 2002) • Approximately 15-20% of children with ODD also have depression and/or anxiety (Frank and Paget and Wilde 2005).
How does a student with ODD think?(Frank et al. ) • A am the equal of those in authority- no one has the right to tell me what to do. • Yes, I sometimes do the wrong thing, but it is usually your fault. • When you punish or reward me, I feel that you are trying to control or manipulate me. • Because I know how much you want me to change, I will be very stubborn about changing behaviors. In spite of experiencing your intended punishments and/or rewards, if I change, it will be on my time and for me. • My greatest sense of control comes from how I make others feel.
Teacher Tips on How to Deal with the ODD Student (Barkley and Benton 1998) (Wenning 1999) • Pick your battles- Keep in mind the struggles that students with ODD go through everyday and allow yourself to ignore some of the less serious behavior. • Don’t react, act- If you react you are giving the student exactly what he/she wants. • Act, don’t discuss- Prompt actions work better then trying to reason with a student that has ODD. It can quickly turn argumentative. • Phrase directions as statements not as questions- If you ask an ODD student to do something he/she probably won’t. • Do not bring up the past- You can do nothing to change it. • Have clear rules and appropriate consequences in place.
Intervention Strategies That Work(Frank et al.) (ericec.org) (DuPaul and Ervin and Friman and Kern 1998) • Preventative • Build a good relationship through consistent boundaries and respectful attitudes. • Find the time to help the students develop life skills for impulse control, anger management, decision-making skills, and social skills. • Create a predictable environment within the classroom and have a safe-haven for the student (someplace he/she can go when they need space). • Avoid disliking the ODD student. • Practice emotional neutrality. • Address each students basic needs of belonging, competence, independence, and generosity. • Use PBIS school-wide.
Moderate Interventions • Help the entire family- Educate family on ODD (if needed) and work together to help student. • Help student set a goal each day and help him/her monitor success. • Use behaviors that diminish power struggles (privacy, listening, simple directives and choices, brevity, walking away, saying “I want you to have the last word.” • Take a time out to cool down when things get heated, “I need some time to think about the points you are making.” • Find an area of interest or expertise and ask for the students help. • Send the student on an errand if you anticipate a resistant behavior. • Embrace the student’s feelings, “I see that this is really important to you.” • Use the No-Confidence Approach-You may say, “Hmm, I don’t think your ready for this yet.” The ODD student will probably try to prove you wrong.
More Intense Interventions • Time Projection- Have the student try to imagine 1 or 2 months into the future when they are having a difficult time. • Have student answer the question, “What has anger done for you lately?” • Keep a volcano calendar- Use an illustration to help the student keep track of the intensity and frequency of anger situations. • Create a distraction- Think of a happy or funny moment and remind the student of it. • Have student get involved in a service learning project. • Trust the student enough to use them as peer helpers.
Recap • Remember that an ODD child has needs just like every other student you have. • Remember to keep calm and never get emotional around your ODD student. • Remember to never take it personal. • Remember that small successes are something to be very proud of. • Remember that there are things that work, it may just take some time to find out what they are.
Is It Worth Your Time To Learn About ODD? • If you can’t answer that question now just wait until your first experience this year with an ODD child. • For more information on Oppositional Defiant Disorder Contact: • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Public Information and Communications Branch 6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 8124, MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Phone: 866-615-6464 • American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) 3615 Wisconsin Avenue, N.W. Washington D.C. 20016-3007 Phone : 202-966-7300 • American Psychiatric Association (APA) 1000Wilson Boulevard, Suite 1825 Arlington , VA 22209-3901 Phone: 703-907-7300
References • Bailey E., Northey W., Silverman W., Wells K. (2003). Childhood behavioral and emotional disorders. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 29, 523- 545. • Benton C., Barkley R., Wilde J. (1998). Your Defiant Child: 8 Steps to better Behavior. New York, New York: The Guilford Press. • Birmaher B., Burke J., Loeber R. (2002). Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 1275-1294. • Carlson C., Gaub M., Tamm L. (1997). Gender differences in children with ADHD, ODD, and co-occurring ADHD/ODD identified in a school population. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1706-1715.
References (continued) • DuPaul G.J., Ervin R.A., Frima P.C. (1998). Classroom-based functional and adjunctive assessments: proactive approaches to intervention selection for adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 65-78. • Frank T., Paget M., Wilde J. (2005). Defying the Defiance. Chapin, South Carolina: Youthlight. • Kirby, A. (2002) Oppositional defiant and conduct disorder. Update, 65, 522-528. • Wenning K. (1999). Winning Cooperation From Your Child: A Comprehensive Method to Stop Defiant and Aggressive Behavior in Children. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson Inc.
Internet Resources • Internet Mental Health • Synopsis of ODD including description, diagnosis, treatment, research, booklets, and other links. • http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-ch05.html • Stockpot EBD Project • Definition, indicators for parents and teachers, and intervention strategies for the mainstream teacher dealing with the ODD student. • http://www.users.glabalnet.co.uk/~edbstudy/disord1/oppose.htm • Information Center in Disabilities and Gifted Education • Definition, diagnostic guidelines and helpful links. • http://ericec.org/faq/odd.html