5.1 Vanishing Species. Biodiversity Increases as you move toward the equator. Tropical rainforest, coral reef, large tropical lakes Larger areas (islands) have more biodiversity (more habitats) # of Species depends on the # of habitats. www.cspo.org/gck/images/Biodiversity%202.jpg.
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5.1 Vanishing Species • Biodiversity • Increases as you move toward the equator. • Tropical rainforest, coral reef, large tropical lakes • Larger areas (islands) have more biodiversity (more habitats) • # of Species depends on the # of habitats.
5.1 Vanishing Species • Importance of Biodiversity • Living things are interdependent • Loss of one species may have large effects on other species in the area. • Loss of habitat, food source, niche, protection, etc. • Provides Stability • Stop spread of disease • Humans Count on it • Hybrid food, medicine, other products
5.1 Vanishing Species • Loss of Biodiversity - Extinction • Background extinction: natural amount • 1-10 sp/year (based on 10 million sp) • Current rate • 100-10,000 sp/year • Causes • Human pop. growth, • habitat loss, • land exploitation
Extinct Eastern Cougar (2011) Carribean Monk Seal (1952) Endangered California Condor Sea Turtles Tiger Alligator Snapping Turtle W. Lowland Gorilla 5.1 Vanishing Species • Threatened • African elephants • Bald Eagle
5.1 Vanishing Species • Threats • **Habitat Loss** • Farm land, firewood, development • Habitat Fragmentation • Decreases biodiversity, geo./genetic isolation, LF • Edge effect • Roads, field, water, etc. www.adb.org/.../img/biodiversity.gif
5.1 Vanishing Species • Threats cont’. • Habitat Degradation • Air – burning fossil fuels, volcanoes, fires • Acid precipitation takes nutrients out of soil, damages tissues, changes pH (range of tolerance) • Water pollution – fertilizers, animal waste, detergents, trash • Causes Algal blooms = take O2 away • Land pollution- trash, pesticides, chemicals • Biological magnification
Threats Cont’ • Exotic Species (non-native)- • Not native to an area: • Disrupt ecosystems, communities, etc • Population explodes due to lack of predators • Use up resources • Zebra Mussel • Introduced to Great Lakes in ballast water of ships • Blocking food chains • Eat algea • Disturb fish reproduction • Disturb nutrient flow
5.2 Conservation of Biodiversity • Conservation – to protect biodiversity • Legal: US Endangered Species Act (1973) • Endangered and threatened sp. protected • Preserving Habitat: National Parks • 1872 – Yellowstone Nat. park • Habitat Corridors: protected areas for migration
5.2 Conservation of Biodiversity • Sustainable Use: use resources, but maintain ecosystem • Reintroduction programs: breeding endangered species, then release them back to their habitat • California Condor • Captivity: keeping of animals by humans • Can be the only place to find species • Animals cannot be reintroduced • Giant Tortoise • Barbary Lion