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Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes

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Prokaryotes

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  1. Prokaryotes Eukaryotes

  2. Epulopiscium fishelsoni Thiomargarita namibiensis

  3. DiplococciNeisseria gonorrhoeae

  4. StreptococciStreptococcus pyogenes

  5. StaphylococciStaphylococcus aureus

  6. BacilliEscherichia coli

  7. Spiralsspirochetes & spirillum

  8. VibrioVibrio cholerae

  9. “Everything is everywhere, the environment selects.” - Martinus Beijerinck (Univ. Delft, 1851-1931)

  10. Magnetosomes Magentospirillum magnetotacticum

  11. Cooperation - not obligatory but beneficial to both

  12. Global Biogeochemical Cycles • 85-130 billion tons nitrogen in microbes • 85% of the 15 billion tons of nitrogen fixed annually is fixed by bacteria • 50% of oxygen produced by cyanobacteria • 350-550 billion tons of carbon trapped in microbes • 50% of carbon fixed by bacteria • 9-14 billion tonsphosphorus in microbes

  13. Intestinal Bacteria ~10,000 species

  14. Intestinal Bacteria ~10,000 species, 1 kg

  15. Bacterial Vitamin Synthesis • K vitamins • E. coli and Bacteriodes • Fat soluble • Coagulation coenzymes • B vitamins • Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacteriodes • Water soluble • B12 (cobalamin) • B9 (folic acid) • B5 (Pantothenic acid) • B7 (Biotin) • B2 (Riboflavin) • B1 (Thiamine)

  16. Postnatal Development -Steppenbach, Hooper and Gordon, PNAS, 2002

  17. Carbohydrate Metabolism

  18. Vaccination begins

  19. Scarlet fever

  20. The Earth Is Old! Radiometric dating of rocks (amîtsoq gneisses) from Western Greenland • Similar results from Australia, Wisconsin, Africa and Russia