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Prokaryotes. Prokaryotes. Structure Cocci : Sphere, 1 micrometer Bacilli: Rod, 2 micrometer Spirilla : Spiral, 5 micrometer Gram Positive: simple walls, thick layer of peptidoglycan Gram Negative: complex walls, two membranes, thin layer of peptidogylcan. Gram Positive vs. Negative.

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prokaryotes1
Prokaryotes
  • Structure
    • Cocci: Sphere, 1 micrometer
    • Bacilli: Rod, 2 micrometer
    • Spirilla: Spiral, 5 micrometer
  • Gram Positive: simple walls, thick layer of peptidoglycan
  • Gram Negative: complex walls, two membranes, thin layer of peptidogylcan
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Prokaryotes
  • Antibiotics work by breaking down cell wall
    • Inhibits peptidoglycan linking together
    • Only affects prokaryotes and not eukaryotes
  • Eukaryotes don’t have peptidoglycans OR cell walls
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Prokaryotes
  • Stick around: prokaryotes may rely on the ability to stay in host or location
  • Capsule: sticky layer outside of cell wall
    • Help adhere to surface
    • Protection
  • Fimbriae: hairlike that stick to surface
    • Short, many
  • Pili: hairlike that stick to surface
    • Long, few
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Prokaryotes
  • Movement
  • Prokaryotes use flagella: tail like structure to create directional movement
  • Otherwise, they demonstrate taxis
  • Taxis: movement toward or away from stimulus
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Prokaryotes
  • Do not have specialized organelles
  • Special membranes to conduct energy processes
    • Respiration
    • Photosynthesis
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Prokaryotes
  • No nucleus, BUT a NUCLEOID REGION
  • DNA found in this region
  • DNA is a genetic ring: Prokaryotic chromosome
  • Smaller plasmids of DNA
  • Ribosomes are smaller in prokaryotes
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Prokaryotes
  • Reproduction
  • Binary Fission: single parent divides into two daughter cells
    • Exponential growth
    • Slowed by antibiotics that inhibit reproduction
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Prokaryotes
  • Rapid reproduction leads to faster evolution
    • More chances for mutation
    • More mutation means more opportunities for evolution
  • Prokaryotes and bacteria become antibiotic resistant over time
  • Fewer genes to mutate
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Prokaryotes
  • Nutrition: different methods of creating energy
  • Photoautotrophs: use photosynthesis to make food and use Carbon from CO2
  • Chemoautotrophs: use Carbon from CO2, use inorganic substances to make energy: ammonia, hydrogen sulfide
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Prokaryotes
  • Photoheterotrophs: use photosynthesis, but need Carbon from organic source
  • Chemoheterotrophs: Carbon from organic source, make energy from inorganic substances.
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Prokaryotes
  • Metabolism: based on Oxygen
  • Obligate aerobes: need use O2 for respiration but cannot grow without it.
  • Facultative anaerobes: can use O2 but can grow with out it through fermentation
  • Obligate anaerobes: poisoned by O2, live exclusively through fermentation
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Prokaryotes
  • Nitrogen fixation: conversion of “fixed Nitrogen” into ammonia
  • Very important for Plant life
  • Metabolic cooperation also happens between prokaryotes so they can use their environment’s resources efficiently.
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Prokaryotes
  • Proteobacteria: gram negative bacteria, anaerobic or aerobic
    • Alpha: eukaryotic hosts
    • Beta: important for nitrogen cycling/fixation
    • Gamma: E. Coli, and Salmonella
    • Delta: Slime Bacteria
    • Epsilon: pathogenic to humans
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Prokaryotes
  • Chlamydias: parasites in animal cells
  • Spirochetes: free living, spiral shaped
  • Gram-positive bacteria: colony and individual bacteria
  • Cyanobacteria: plant like, lives in water, very important for marine ecosystems
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Prokaryotes
  • Archaea Prokaryotes
    • Korarchaeotes
    • Euryarchaeotes
    • Crenarchaeotes
    • Nanoarchaeotes