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Chapter 5

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  1. Chapter 5 • Smaller organic molecules join together to form larger molecules • macromolecules • 4 major classes of macromolecules: • carbohydrates • lipids • proteins • nucleic acids

  2. Polymers • Long molecules built by linking repeating building blocks in a chain • monomers • building blocks • repeated small units • covalent bonds

  3. H2O HO H HO H enzyme HO H How to build a polymer • Synthesis • http://nutrition.jbpub.com/resources/animations.cfm?id=6 • joins monomers by “taking” H2O out • one monomer donates OH– • other monomer donates H+ • together these form H2O • requires energy & enzymes Dehydration synthesis Condensationreaction

  4. H2O HO H enzyme H HO H HO How to break down a polymer • Digestion • http://nutrition.jbpub.com/resources/animations.cfm?id=7&debug=0 • use H2O to breakdown polymers • reverse of dehydration synthesis • cleave off one monomer at a time • H2O is split into H+ and OH– • H+ & OH– attach to ends • requires enzymes • releases energy Hydrolysis Digestion

  5. sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar Carbohydrates • Carbohydrates are composed of __, __, __ carbo - hydr - ate CH2O (CH2O)x C6H12O6 • Function: • fast energyuenergy storage • raw materialsustructural materials • Monomer: sugars • ex: sugars, starches, cellulose (CH2O)x C6H12O6


  6. Functional groups determine function carbonyl aldehyde carbonyl ketone

  7. Sugar structure 5C & 6C sugars form rings in solution

  8. CH2OH O H H H OH H OH HO H OH Glucose Simple & complex sugars • Monosaccharides • simple 1 monomer sugars • glucose • Disaccharides • 2 monomers • sucrose • Polysaccharides • large polymers • starch

  9. H2O Building sugars • Dehydration synthesis monosaccharides disaccharide | glucose | glucose | maltose

  10. H2O Building sugars • Dehydration synthesis monosaccharides disaccharide | glucose | fructose | sucrose (table sugar)

  11. Polysaccharides • Polymers of sugars • costs little energy to build • easily reversible = release energy • What are they used for? • energy storage • starch (plants) • glycogen (animals) • in liver & muscles • structure • cellulose (plants) • chitin (arthropods & fungi)

  12. CH2OH O OH H H OH H OH H H NH O C CH3 (a) The structure of the chitin monomer. (b) Chitin forms the exoskeleton of arthropods. This cicada is molting, shedding its old exoskeleton and emerging in adult form. (c) Chitin is used to make a strong and flexible surgical thread that decomposes after the wound or incision heals. CHITIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  13. Polysaccharides in cells starch (plant) energystorage glycogen (animal)

  14. Polysaccharides in cells • As starch is being stored, it undergoes hydrolysis reactions (as needed) to release energy.

  15. Polysaccharide diversity • Molecular structure determines function in starch in cellulose • isomers of glucose • structure determines function…

  16. enzyme enzyme Digesting starch vs. cellulose starcheasy todigest cellulosehard todigest only bacteria can digest

  17. Starch Cellulose

  18. Cellulose • Most abundant organic compound on Earth • herbivores contain a mechanism to digest cellulose • most carnivores do not • that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients • cellulose = “insoluble fiber”

  19. Cow can digest cellulose well; no need to eat other sugars Gorilla can’t digest cellulose well; must add another sugar source, like fruit to diet

  20. Helpful bacteria • How can herbivores digest cellulose so well? • BACTERIA live in their digestive systems & help digest cellulose-rich (grass) meals

  21. Any Questions??