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Chapter 32. Social, Cultural, and Religious Influences on Children. Culture, Socialization, and Religion. A pattern of assumptions, beliefs, and practices that unconsciously frames or guides the outlook and decisions of a group of people.

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chapter 32

Chapter 32

Social, Cultural, and Religious Influences on Children

culture socialization and religion
Culture, Socialization, and Religion
  • A pattern of assumptions, beliefs, and practices that unconsciously frames or guides the outlook and decisions of a group of people.
  • The process by which children acquire the beliefs, values, and behaviors of a given society in order to function within a group.
  • Dictates a code of morality and influences the family’s attitudes toward education, male and female role identity, and beliefs regarding their ultimate destiny.
social roles
Social Roles
  • Roles are cultural creations
  • A role allows some behaviors and prohibits others
  • A child’s idea of his/her social role is a major factor in shaping the self-concept
  • Her idea comes from a collection of several groups to which she is exposed such as family, peers, and other authority figures
  • The child ultimately selects those ideas of role behavior that are best for him
controlling behavior
Controlling Behavior
  • Culture uses guilt and shame techniques to control social behavior
  • Children internalize norms and expectations of others to help regulate their behavior
  • Self-regulated people punish themselves
  • Those who do not regulate themselves are punished by the culture
subcultural influences
Subcultural Influences
  • Children are born into a certain subcultural group, but grow and develop in a blend of groups. The 2 subcultures that have the greatest influence on how the family raises their children is:
    • Ethnic group*
    • Social class/occupation*
subcultures cont d
Subcultures cont’d
  • The two subcultures that have the greatest influence on socialization of the child are:
    • Schools—pass on expectation of the culture: attendance, authority, reward and punishment based on achievement teaches child how to make it in the world
    • Peer groups—become more and more important after the child enters school and as the child grows. Child learns to conform, compromise, and follow rules of the peer group in an effort to belong.
family life in north america
Family life in North America
  • More mobile; busier; more fragmented
  • Less reliance on tradition and more reliance on professed “experts”, peers, and mass media to shape behavior
  • Minorities are increasing—cultural blending is occurring
cultural and religious influences on health care
Cultural and Religious Influences on Health Care
  • Susceptibility to health problems—genetic factors
  • Socioeconomic factors—biggest influence on health. Preventive health care, access, and good nutrition is severely lacking in poor families and families without health insurance.
  • Customs and folkways
  • Food customs
customs and folkways
Customs and Folkways
  • Some cultures feel like illness affects whole body and all aspects of child’s life
  • Signs and sx may be interpreted differently than the nurse sees them
  • Some cultures value male over female child
  • Time may be viewed differently
  • Decision maker in family may vary
customs and folkways cont d
Customs and Folkways cont’d
  • Be mindful of your approach to the child
  • Involvement of family in child’s care may differ
  • Prejudice can go both ways
  • Child may have complicated name based on family custom
  • Food choices may be based on availability, religion, or hot and cold theory
communication needs
Communication Needs
  • Those with LEP must have language assistance
  • Do not use medical jargon or slang
  • Remember nonverbal communication may differ
    • Eye contact
    • Personal space
    • Gestures
    • Silence
    • Yes means no
health beliefs
Health Beliefs
  • Natural forces—self in harmony with universe; natural forces like weather can cause illness
  • Supernatural forces—evil spirits or sin cause illness—meds won’t work
  • Imbalance of forces—yin and yang; hot and cold. Illness is an imbalance of forces. Get in balance to be well
  • Biomedical theory—pathogens cause illness
health practices
Health Practices
  • Similarities among cultures regarding prevention and treatment of illness
  • Most seek other remedies or sources before seeking medical attention
  • Practices may be harmful (lead ingestion) or harmless (amulets) or may be perceived as being abusive (Box 32-1; p.835)
  • Best not to criticize or suggest that biomedical approach is the only right one; try to compromise
religious beliefs
Religious Beliefs
  • Religious articles or rituals
  • Dietary restrictions
  • Rituals r/t baptism or death
  • Clergy needs
increase your own cultural competence
Increase Your Own Cultural Competence
  • Be aware of your own cultural values and religious beliefs
  • Reject racism
  • Be aware of and knowledgeable about the predominant groups in your own community
  • Become familiar with cultural issues related to health and illness
  • Realize that certain behaviors may be cultural in nature and not “abnormal”
cultural competence cont d
Cultural Competence cont’d
  • On admission, ask if the child and family have any cultural or religious concerns that may affect health care
  • Make efforts to learn about each client’s unique hx and develop a trusting, accepting relationship
  • Work with other nurses in developing acceptable interventions for the predominant culture groups.