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Chapter 32. Maxwell’s Equations Electromagnetic Waves. Maxwell’s Equations. Describe EVERYTHING in Electromagnetism. Gauss’ Law (Electric). Gauss’ Law (Magnetic). No magnetic monopole exists. Faraday’s Law. Ampere-Maxwell law. Rewriting the EQN. Another equation.

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Chapter 32
Chapter 32

Maxwell’s Equations

Electromagnetic Waves

Maxwell s equations
Maxwell’s Equations

Describe EVERYTHING in Electromagnetism

Gauss law magnetic
Gauss’ Law (Magnetic)

No magnetic monopole exists

Maxwell s equations second version
Maxwell’s equations(second version)

Maxwell s equation two versions
Maxwell’s Equation(Two Versions)

Electromagnetic wave
Electromagnetic Wave


Light is represented by fluctuations in the magnetic and electric field called electromagnetic waves. EM wave is a consequence of the Maxwell’s Equation.


Basic facts about em waves in vacuum
Basic Facts about EM waves in vacuum

  • Always travels at exactly the speed of light c.

  • E and B are always perpendicular.

  • E×B gives the direction of the wave.

  • |E|=|cB|

  • Two independent direction of polarization (later)


This is precisely the speed of light! Conclusive proof that light is a kind of EM wave.


And God said,

Let there be light,

and there was light.

- Genesis 1:3

The dual nature of light quantum mechanics
The Dual Nature of Light(Quantum Mechanics)

Sometimes waves

Sometimes particles (photons)

How to produce em waves
How to produce EM waves

  • Acceleration of charges

  • Electrons jumping in energy levels in atoms

  • Changing energy levels in molecules

Poynting vector
Poynting Vector