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Genetic engineering - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Genetic engineering . is the field of science that deals with making changes in an organism’s DNA. DNA extraction . the process of separating DNA from the rest of the cell. Restriction enzymes .

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genetic engineering

Genetic engineering

is the field of science that deals with making changes in an organism’s DNA

dna extraction

DNA extraction

the process of separating DNA from the rest of the cell

restriction enzymes
Restriction enzymes
  • are used to cut DNA. They are very specific and cut DNA only in specified places due to a nucleotide sequence.
gel electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis

procedure where DNA fragments are placed in a special gel and an electric current is run through it. The current picks up the pieces and carries them through the gel. Bands are then compared to a known sample. This is used to compare samples from crime scenes to suspects(looking for a specific match), or a child to a possible family or father(looking for similarities in DNA). CODIS is the genetic “bank” of DNA samples from crime scenes.

dna fingerprinting

DNA fingerprinting

an analysis of sections of DNA that are used to identify individuals….such as criminals, missing children, MIA soldiers, crime victims, etc. Each person has unique DNA that can be used for identification.

selective breeding
Selective breeding
  • allowing only those animals or plants with desired traits to reproduce. This is how we have developed many varieties of corn, wheat, rice, cows, horses, dogs, etc. These are referred to as domesticated varieties.
  • the crossing of dissimilar organisms to bring together the best of both organisms.
  • Many crops and domesticated animals are hybrids
recombinant dna
Recombinant DNA
  • the combination of DNA from different sources. (EX> Human gene for human growth hormone is inserted into bacteria and then used to produce growth hormone used to treat growth disorders). This is the same procedure used to produce insulin for diabetics, or clotting factor for hemophiliacs: they just insert a different gene into the bacteria.
  • term used to describe genetically modified foods
  • refers to transferring the genetic material of one cell into another cell..this can result in either a group of identical cells or a new individual, in which case it is called reproductive cloning. Dolly, a sheep produced in 1996 was the first cloned mammal.
gene therapy
Gene therapy
  • a process in which an absent or faulty gene is replaced with a normal working gene. This has been successfully done in some cases in humans