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  1. Examples of results of LCA of BiofuelsPaolo Masoni ENEA – LCA & Ecodesign Lab (ACS PROT – INN)paolo.masoni@bologna.enea.itUNESCORome, 2007 18th January

  2. Table of Contents • Research in progress on LCA methodology • Main results of existing studies on LCA of Biofuels • Conclusions • Bibliography

  3. Research on LCA methodology • LCA is the only sustainability decision-supporting tool that has been standardised by ISO • ISO-LCA with its simplifications has been the driving power for LCA diffusion, but it has limitations regarding empirical mechanisms, spatial/temporal aspects and economic/social parameters • CALCAS Project (co-ordinated by ENEA): Research perspectives on a broadened and deepened LCA for more integrated sustainability assessments

  4. CALCAS Objective • “deepening” the present models and tools to improve their applicability in different contexts while increasing their reliability and usability • “broadening” the LCA scope by better incorporating sustainability aspects and linking to neighbouring models, to improve their significance • “leaping forward” by a revision/enrichment of foundations, through the crossing with other disciplines for sustainability evaluation.

  5. LCA of biofuels: status • A number of different studies • Two important review studies: • IFEU: CO2 mitigationthrough biofuels in transport sector • US EPA: a review of assessments conducted on bio-ethanol as a transportation fuel • Only few studies on BTL and only for conversion path from lignocellulose

  6. Main results from available studies (source: IFEU 2005) • Existing LCA do not cover all biofuels for transportation • Not all LCA studies are representative • Biofuels improve GHG and energy balances • Not many studies on other impacts are available • Different questions lead to different answers • Research need for Biomass To Liquid (BTL) from residues • Different results for biofuels from energy crops and from residues

  7. LCA of Biomass To Liquid • Few studies: • Küpers 2002; • L-B-Systemtechnik et al. 2002; • Marano & Ciferno 2001; • Mehlin et al. 2003; • Van den Broek et al. 2003.

  8. Marano & Ciferno 2001 • Objective: a full life-cycle inventory (LCI) of GHG emissions for synthetic fuels produced using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process derived from three types of feedstocks: coal, biomass and natural gas.

  9. Fuel chain options

  10. Mehlin (2003) • Investigated the use of poplar trees, miscanthus, and wood residues for the production of synfuel. Comparison with other fuels

  11. Results: GWP of fuel life cycle

  12. Sundiesel Source: Volkswagen, 2005

  13. Source: Volkswagen, 2005

  14. Studied scenarios Source: Volkswagen, 2005

  15. Source: Volkswagen, 2005

  16. Conclusions • A good number of LCA studies on biofuels exists, but only few on BTL • Good perspectives for BTL but additional analysis is required to optimise the system, to identify the best pathway and to reduce the uncertainties/data gaps

  17. References • Küpers 2002 Küpers G. R. (2002) Climate neutral transport fuels from biomass; the BIG-FiT concept. • L-B-Systemtechnik et al. 2002 L-B-Systemtechnik, Choudhury R., Wurster R., Schindler J., Miller M., Brink-man N., Armstrong A., Rckead D., Jersey G., Kerby M., Khehgi H., Robbins J., Cadu J. and Breton D. L. (2002) GM Well-to-Wheel Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Advanced Fuel/ Vehicle Systems - A European Study. L-B-Systemtechnik GmbH, Ottobrunn, DE, retrieved from: • Marano & Ciferno 2001 Marano J. J. and Ciferno J. P. (2001) Life-Cycle Greenhouse-Gas Emissions In-ventory For Fischer-Tropsch Fuels. U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Prepared by, Energy and Environmental Solutions, LLC, retrieved from: • Mehlin et al. 2003 Mehlin M., Zauner M., Gühnemann A., Aoki R. and Vance C. (2003) Renewa-ble Fuels for Cross Border Transportation. ENV.CI/ETU/2001/0092. German Aerospace Center (Institute of Transport Research), Institute of Energy and En-vironment, University of Stuttgart (Department of Transportation Planning and Traffic Engineering) for European Commission, retrieved from: • van den Broek et al. 2003 van den Broek R., van Walwijk M., Niermeijer P. and Tijmensen M. (2003) Bio-fuels in the Dutch market: a fact-finding study. NOVEM, Utrecht.

  18. References • Stephan Krinke (Volkswagen AG), 2005. SunDiesel - a new promising biofuel forsustainable mobility • Guido A. Reinhardt, Nicolai Jungk IFEU, 2001. Pros and cons of RME compared to conventional diesel fuel • KARL JONASSON, BJÖRN SANDÉN, 2004 Time and Scale Aspects in Life Cycle. Assessment of Emerging Technologies. Case Study on Alternative Transport Fuels. CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY. CPM-report 2004:6, Göteborg, Sweden • Tomas Ekvall, 2002 Limitations of consequencial LCA. InLCA/LCM 2002 e-Conference 20-25 May 2002 • Harro von Blottnitz, Mary Ann Curran, 2006. A review of assessment conducted on bio-ethanol as a transportation fuel from a net energy, grenhouse gas, and environmental life-cycle perspective. Accepted for publication in the Journal of Cleaner Production (2006) • Guido Reinardt IFEU, Comparison of Well-to Wheel Analysis of Biofuels. Synbios Second Generation Automotive Biofuel Conference. 18-20 May 2005, Stockholm Sveden. • Summer School RENEW "LCA for biofuels" - 10 - ESU-services