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Group U2 : Kyle Demel Keaton Hamm Bryan Holekamp Rachael Houk. Molecular Separation by Nano -porous Membanes. http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/id4407.jpg.

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group u2 kyle demel keaton hamm bryan holekamp rachael houk
Group U2:

Kyle Demel

Keaton Hamm

Bryan Holekamp

Rachael Houk

Molecular Separation by Nano-porous Membanes

http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/id4407.jpg

Based on the article A theoretical analysis of non-chemical separation of hydrogen sulfide from methane by nano-porous membranes using capillary condensations

outline
Outline
  • Need for molecular separation
  • Conventional separation
  • Membrane separation
  • Membrane synthesis
  • Conclusion
  • Future research

http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/id4407.jpg

introduction
Introduction
  • Natural Gas comes out of theground with H2S, which must beremoved before further processing
    • H2S is very toxic
    • Starting levels can be high (>5%)
    • For U.S. pipelines, limit is 4 ppm
  • Currently, most separation processes employ chemical means
  • One alternative is to use a nano-porous membrane to achieve a physical separation

http://www3.humboldt.edu/engineering/sites/www3.humboldt.edu.engineering/marsh/images/hswarn.gif

conventional h 2 s separation
Conventional H2S Separation
  • Traditional methods
    • Wash with MEA, DEA, or other amines
    • Use an oxide adsorbent
  • Disadvantages
    • Consumes these chemicals
    • Added hazards due to additional chemicals

http://www.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve/4452175/2/istockphoto_4452175-chemical-hazard-label.jpg

http://www.ripi.ir/gas%20processing.jpg

amine wash separation
Amine Wash Separation
  • Removes H2S, CO2, and mercaptans
  • Need a lot of equipment
  • Need both heating and cooling utilities

Image from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amine_gas_treating

oxide adsorbent
Oxide Adsorbent
  • Excellent separation achieved
  • Can have significant pressure drop
  • Need high temperatures
  • Use iron oxide or zinc oxide

Image from http://www.cwaller.de/sorbents.htm

http://imghost.indiamart.com/data/I/0/MY-267906/Chromatography-2_250x250.jpg

criteria for a good membrane
Criteria for a Good Membrane
  • Good selectivity in allowing H2S through and not CH4, only a small amount of CH4 dissolved in liquid H2S phase
  • Minimal pressure drop in bulk phase

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/58/Methane-3D-balls.png

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/nano4/tuzun/paper1/fig1p1.gif

mechanism
Mechanism

Nano-porous membrane

Bulk Phase Permeate

H2S

CH4

H2S

CH4

H2S

CH4

CH4

CH4

CH4

H2S

H2S

H2S

CH4

CH4

H2S

A good membrane will have a high ratio of H2S to CH4 permeate through.

CH4

CH4

nano porouos membranes
Nano-porouosMembranes

sites.google.com/.../home/MAIN_NANO_2.jpg

www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/3/1/165/ag

csites.google.com/.../home/MAIN_NANO_2.jpg

separation factor
Separation Factor

Where

  • x = mole fraction in the pore
  • y= mole fraction in the bulk

http://tanakalab.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/research/image/ViscoelasticPS_Sim.png

synthesis of membranes
Synthesis of Membranes

How are nano-porous membranes created?

  • Self-ordering electrochemical process
  • Cyclic anodization
    • Anodization that creates holes in anode

http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/tmp/graphtoc/107640323/122443547/122267098/ncontent

http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch20/graphics/20_1.gif

self ordering electrochemical process
Self-Ordering Electrochemical Process
  • A schematic diagram showing pore formation by electrochemical self-ordering
    • Scheme of electrochemical cell for anodization and corresponding electrochemical reactions.
    • Scheme of pore formation, which includes several steps:
      • the formation of oxide layer on metal surface;
      • local field distributions caused by surface fluctuations;
      • the initiation of pore growth by field-enhanced dissolution; and
      • the pore growth in steady-state condition
    • Typical current density curve obtained with anodization showing these stages
cyclic anodization
Cyclic Anodization
  • New development by Dr. DucasLosic of the University of South Australia
  • A series of fabrication protocols to precisely control their most critical parameters, including pore diameters, pore geometry and surface chemistry
conclusion
Conclusion
  • H2S separation is necessary: traditional methods are acceptable, but nano-porous membranes perform better
  • The H2S condenses and flows through the membrane to separate; therefore, membrane transport depends upon temperature and pressure
  • Membranes can be made through self-ordering electrochemical process and cyclic anodazition

http://www.outotec.com/34718.epibrw

further research
Further Research
  • Gas mixtures of more than just methane and hydrogen sulfide, like actual natural gas
  • Optimized temperature and pressure
  • Better manufacturing techniques, particularly for large scale production
  • Try a pilot-plant scale testing

http://www.sciencecodex.com/graphics/Nanofilter.jpg

references
References
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amine_gas_treating
  • http://www.chem.tamu.edu/class/majors/chem470/Synthesis_Gas.html
  • http://www.thefuelman.com/Documents/H2S_removal.pdf
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_sulfide
  • “Engineering of Nanomembranes for Emerging Applications” by Dr. DucasLosichttp://www.azonano.com/details.asp?ArticleId=2445
  • “Simple and reliable technology for manufacturing metal-composite nanomembranes with giant aspect ratio” by Jovan Matovića and ZoranJakšićhttp://www.sciencedirect.com
  • “Self-ordered nanopore and nanotube platforms for drug delivery applications” by DusanLosic & SpomenkaSimovichttp://informahealthcare.com/doi/pdf/10.1517/17425240903300857?cookieSet=1