Parkinson disease
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Parkinson Disease. By: Ashley & Kendra. What is it?. Parkinson Disease (PD ) a progressive disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's motor skills, speech, and other functions. Causes. The cause of Parkinson Disease remains unknown.

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Parkinson disease

Parkinson Disease

By: Ashley & Kendra

What is it
What is it?

  • Parkinson Disease (PD)a progressive disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's motor skills, speech, and other functions.


  • The cause of Parkinson Disease remains unknown.

    • Many experts think that the disease is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

  • Scientists have identified aging as an important cause.

Genetic factors
Genetic Factors

  • About 15 to 25 percent of people with Parkinson’s report having a relative with the disease.

  • Researchers have discovered several gene mutations that can cause the disease directly, but these affect only a small number of families.

Environmental factors
Environmental Factors

  • Some scientists have suggested that Parkinson disease may result from exposure to an environmental toxin or injury.

  • Researchers have identified several factors that may be linked to Parkinson’s.

    • rural living

    • well water

    • manganese

    • pesticides

  • Some studies have demonstrated that prolonged occupational exposure to certain chemicals can be a trigger as well.


  • A substance called dopamine acts as a messenger between two brain areas, the substantianigra and the corpus striatum to produce smooth, controlled movements.

  • When the amount of dopamine is too low, communication between the substantianigra and corpus striatum becomes ineffective, and movement becomes impaired.

  • The greater the loss of dopamine, the worse the movement-related symptoms

The brain


  • Parkinson Disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder.

  • It is also the most common movement disorder.

  • In the United States, about 1 million people are affected by Parkinson Disease and about 5 million worldwide.

Primary symptoms
Primary Symptoms

  • Primary symptoms include:

    • tremor

    • stiffness

    • slowness

    • impaired balance

    • shuffling


  • Effects the present areas

Secondary symptoms
Secondary Symptoms

  • Anxiety, insecurity, and stress

  • Confusion and memory loss

  • Constipation

  • Depression

  • Difficulty swallowing and excessive salivation

  • Increased sweating

  • Skin problems

  • Slowed, quieter speech, and monotone voice

  • Urinary frequency/urgency

At risk
At Risk

  • Most people who develop Parkinson's disease are older than 60 years of age.

  • Men are affected about 1.5 to 2 times more often than women.

  • People who have a family history of the disorder.

  • People who have been exposed to environmental toxins such as pesticides and herbicide.


  • There is currently NO treatment to cure Parkinson Disease.


  • For some individuals with unmanageable motor symptoms, surgery may be an option.

    • In deep brain stimulation(DBS), the surgeon implants electrodes to stimulate areas of the brain involved in movement.

    • In another type of surgery, specific areas in the brain that cause Parkinson symptoms are destroyed.

  • An alternative approach currently being explored is the use of dopamine-producing cells derived from stem cells.


  • There are many medications available to treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s, although none yet that actually reverse the effects of the disease.

  • It is common for people with PD to take a variety of these medications – all at different doses and at different times of day - in order to manage the symptoms of the disease.


  • General lifestyle changes (rest and exercise), physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy may be beneficial.


  • Parkinson Disease is NOT preventable.


  • The severity of Parkinson Disease symptoms vary greatly from individual to individual and it is not possible to predict how quickly the disorder will progress.

  • Parkinson Disease is not a fatal disease and the average life expectancy is similar to that of people without the disease.

Michael j fox
Michael J Fox

  • Actor Michael J. Fox has PD.

  • Fox was diagnosed in 1991 when he was 30, but kept his condition secret from the public for seven years.

Muhammad ali
Muhammad Ali

  • Muhammad Ali has shown signs of parkinsonism since the age of 38.


1. How many people are affected by Parkinson Disease in the United States?

  • One million

    2. About how old is a person who develops Parkinson Disease?

  • 60 years of age

    3. Give an example of a primary symptom for Parkinson Disease?

  • tremor, stiffness, slowness, impaired balance, shuffling