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MOST IMPROVED. Practical Grade increased > 10%. Danielle Montgomery Jerrilyn Moore Tuan Nguyen Ashley Pisano Lindsey Plaia Emily Richard Alexander Wheatley. Elise Atkinson Calie Budo Shanon Campbell Corinne Carr Lauren Damico Cheryl Ellsworth Sophia Estopinal Sara Lacey.

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    1. MOST IMPROVED Practical Grade increased > 10% Danielle Montgomery Jerrilyn Moore Tuan Nguyen Ashley Pisano Lindsey Plaia Emily Richard Alexander Wheatley Elise Atkinson Calie Budo Shanon Campbell Corinne Carr Lauren Damico Cheryl Ellsworth Sophia Estopinal Sara Lacey

    2. Practical Exam 2 Anatomy all-stars Katasha August Jared Bain Katelyn Beattie Jocelyn Braselman Jones Mary Cusimano Andria Dennis Ashley Gilchrist Jennifer Gravolet Nathan Green Shayana Hogan Kellen McConnell Ashley Pisano Mark Ranatza Sarah Raymond Emily Schott Jo Sciple Jamie Stock Alexandra Waters Jessica Windham

    3. Vertebral Column and Back

    4. VERTEBRAL COLUMN 7 CERVICAL VERTEBRAE • Protection of spinal cord and spinal nerves • Rigid but flexible body axis • Pivot for head 12 THORACIC VERTEBRAE 5 LUMBAR VERTEBRAE 33 FETAL UNITS 26 ADULT UNITS 1 SACRUM [ 5 FUSED] 1 COCCYX [4 FUSED]

    5. NORMAL CURVES OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN ADULT CURVES Cervical Curve Secondary Lordotic Thoracic Curve Primary Kyphotic Lumbar Curve Secondary Lordotic FETAL CURVES All Kyphotic Sacrococcygeal Curve Primary Kyphotic

    6. TODDLER FETUS INFANT • FETUS: PRIMARY CURVATURE (KYPHOSIS) • INFANT: SECONDARY CERVICAL LORDOSIS • TODDLER: SECONDARY LUMBAR LORDOSIS

    7. EXAGGERATED LUMBAR CURVE “SWAYBACK” EXAGGERATED THORACIC CURVE “HUNCHBACK” LATERAL CURVATURE CLINICAL CORRELATION

    8. SEVERE SCOLIOSIS – WILL REQUIRE TREATMENT CLINICAL CORRELATION

    9. TYPICAL VERTEBRA SUPERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESS SPINOUS PROCESS TRANSVERSE PROCESS Lamina Pedicle VERTEBRAL ARCH VERTEBRAL FORAMEN BODY (CENTRUM) SPINAL CORD

    10. TYPICAL VERTEBRA SUPERIOR NOTCH S.A.P. PEDICLE BODY INTERVERTEBRAL FORAMEN BODY TRANSVERSE PROCESS SPINE INTERVERTEBRAL DISC INFERIOR NOTCH I.A.P. LEFT LATERAL VIEW

    11. SPINAL NERVES SPINAL NERVES EMERGE FROM INTERVERTEBRAL FORAMINA MRI scan

    12. CERVICAL VERTEBRAE POSTERIOR VIEW

    13. TYPICAL CERVICAL VERTEBRA LAMINA BIFID SPINE TRIANGULAR VERTEBRAL FORAMEN SUPERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESS TRANSVERSE FORAMEN PEDICLE TRANSVERSE PROCESS BODY SUPERIOR VIEW

    14. THE ATLAS (C1) POSTERIOR ARCH LATERAL MASS DENS FACET ANTERIOR ARCH SUPERIOR VIEW HAS NO SPINE AND NO BODY

    15. THE AXIS (C2) DENS SUPERIOR VIEW HAS A DENS OR ODONTOID PROCESS

    16. VERTEBRA PROMINENS (C7) NONBIFID SPINE SUPERIOR VIEW

    17. THORACIC VERTEBRAE PEDICLE TRANSVERSE PROCESS SAP FACET FOR RIB TUBERCLE IAP SPINE INTERVERTEBRAL FORAMEN RIGHT LATERAL VIEW

    18. TYPICAL THORACIC VERTEBRA TRANSVERSE COSTAL FACET SUPERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESS TRANSVERSE PROCESS SUPERIOR DEMIFACET SUPERIOR VIEW

    19. TYPICAL THORACIC VERTEBRA SUPERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESS SUPERIOR DEMIFACET TRANSVERSE PROCESS BODY COSTAL FACET [T1-T10] PART OF LAMINA INFERIOR DEMIFACET SPINE LATERAL VIEW

    20. LUMBAR VERTEBRAE LATERAL VIEW

    21. TYPICAL LUMBAR VERTEBRA SUPERIOR VERTEBRAL NOTCH SUPERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESS FACES MEDIALLY LARGE BODY TRANSVERSE PROCESS INFERIOR VERTEBRAL NOTCH SHORT RECTANGULAR SPINOUS PROCESS INFERIOR ARTICULAR FACET FACES LATERALLY LATERAL VIEW

    22. SACRUM AND COCCYX SUPERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESS ALA SACRAL PROMONTORY BODY S1 ANTERIOR SACRAL FORAMEN S2 TRANSVERSE LINE S3 S4 BASE S5 TRANSVERSE PROCESS CO1 CO2 COCCYX CO3 CO4 ANTERIOR VIEW

    23. SACRUM AND COCCYX SACRAL CANAL SUPERIOR ARTICULAR FACET POSTERIOR SACRAL FORAMEN CO1 COCCYX CO2 CO3 CO4 POSTERIOR VIEW

    24. VERTEBRAL LIGAMENTS 1. ANTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT 5. SUPRA- SPINOUS LIG. 2. POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT DISC 3. LIG. FLAVA 4. INTER- SPINOUS LIG. BODY 1. ANTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT LATERAL AND ANTERIOR VIEWS

    25. LIGAMENTS OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN 1. ANTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT: Anterior to the vertebral bodies Is found from C2 to the Sacrum 2. POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT: Posterior to the vertebral bodies and anterior to the spinal cord Is found from C2 to the Sacrum 3. LIGAMENTUM FLAVUM: Elastic fibers make it yellow in appearance Runs from the laminae of adjacent vertebrae from C2 to the Sacrum Forms the posterior wall of the vertebral foramen along with the vertebral arches 4. INTERSPINOUS LIGAMENT: Runs from spine to spine from C2 to the Sacrum 5. SUPRASPINOUS LIGAMENT: Runs from the tip of one spinous process to the next Called the nuchal ligament in the cervical region

    26. INTERVERTEBRAL JOINTS AO JOINT AA JOINT INTERVERTEBRAL DISCS FACET JOINTS OSSIFIED JOINTS

    27. ATLANTO-OCCIPITAL JOINT OCCIPITAL BONE AO JOINT C1 Functional Class: Diarthrosis (freely movable) Structural Class: Synovial (synovial cavity) Subtype: Condyloid Movements: Flexion and Extension

    28. ATLANTO-OCCIPITAL JOINT MOVEMENTS AT THE ATLANTO-OCCIPITAL JOINT

    29. ATLANTO-AXIAL (AA) JOINT

    30. ATLANTO-AXIAL (AA) JOINT ANTERIOR ANTERIOR ARCH OF ATLAS CHECK LIGAMENT POSTERIOR DENS OF AXIS Functional Class: Diarthrosis Structural Class: Synovial Subtype: Pivot Movements: Rotation

    31. ATLANTO-AXIAL (AA) JOINT MOVEMENTS AT THE ATLANTO-AXIAL JOINT

    32. DUE TO A FALL OR AN AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENT COULD BE FATAL IF DENS PRESSES ON SPINAL CORD CLINICAL CORRELATION

    33. DUE TO HYPEREXTENSION OF THE NECK HANGMAN’S FRACTURE CLINICAL CORRELATION

    34. INTERVERTEBRAL DISC Functional Class: Amphiarthrosis [slight movement] Structural Class: Cartilaginous Subtype: Symphysis Movements: Flexion and Extension

    35. INTERVERTEBRAL DISC

    36. INTERVERTEBRAL DISC MOVEMENTS AT THE INTERVERTEBRAL DISCS

    37. PROTRUDING [HERNIATED] DISC PRESSING ON A SPINAL NERVE ANNULUS FIBROSIS NUCLEUS PULPOSIS CLINICAL CORRELATION

    38. PROTRUDING [HERNIATED] DISC PRESSING ON A SPINAL NERVE MRI of lumbar region CLINICAL CORRELATION

    39. FACET JOINTS [BETWEEN SAPS AND IAPS] Functional Class: Diarthrosis Structural Class: Synovial Subtype: Gliding Movements: Flexion, Lateral Flexion, Extension

    40. FACET JOINTS MOVEMENTS AT FACET JOINTS [ ROTATION NOT SHOWN]

    41. OSSIFIED JOINTS Functional Type: Synarthrosis [immovable] Structural Type: Synostosis [converted to bone] Movement: None

    42. DUE TO AN AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENT HYPEREXTENSION INJURY (WHIPLASH) CLINICAL CORRELATION

    43. SPORTS RELATED HYPEREXTENSION INJURY CLINICAL CORRELATION

    44. BACK AND NECK MUSCLES EXTRINSIC BACK MUSCLES Superficial 1ST Layer Two large flat triangular muscles TRAPEZIUS LATISSIMUS DORSI

    45. EXTRINSIC BACK MUSCLES – Superficial 2nd Layer LEVATOR SCAPULAE RHOMBOID MINOR Three muscles that attach the scapula to the Vertebral column RHOMBOID MAJOR

    46. INTERMEDIATE EXTRINSIC BACK MUSCLES SERRATUS POSTERIOR SUPERIOR M. SERRATUS POSTERIOR INFERIOR M. THESE ARE ACCESSORY MUSCLES OF RESPIRATION

    47. DEEP [INTRINSIC] BACK MUSCLES SUPERFICIAL DEEP – THE SPLENIUS MM. INTERMEDIATE DEEP – THE LONGITUDINAL MM. DEEP DEEP – THE TRANSVERSOSPINAL MM.

    48. SPLENIUS MUSCLES FIBERS RUN OBLIQUELY IN UPPER THORACIC AND CERVICAL REGIONS SPLENIUS CAPITIS M. SPLENIUS CERVICIS M. SPLENIUS CAPITIS M. From upper thoracic region to the skull SPLENIUS CERVICIS M. From upper thoracic region to upper cervical region We usually group these two muscles into a single “SPLENIUS MUSCLE”

    49. LONGITUDINAL MM. - ERECTOR SPINAE COMPLEX FIBERS RUN LONGITUDINALLY AND LATERALLY ERECTOR SPINAE COMPLEX 3 COLUMNS FROM MEDIAL TO LATERAL: SPINALIS MM. From upper lumbar region to cervical region LONGISSIMUS MM. From lumbar region to skull ILIOCOSTALIS MM. From sacrum and iliac crest to cervical region ILIOCOSTALIS LONGISSIMUS SPINALIS S.L.IC.

    50. TRANSVERSOSPINAL MM. FIBERS RUN OBLIQUELY FROM TRANSVERSE PROCESSES TO SPINOUS PROCESSES SEMISPINALES 3 GROUPS SEMISPINALIS MM. Span 4-5 vertebrae MULTIFIDUS MM. Span 2-4 vertebrae ROTATORES MM. Span 1-2 vertebrae (see next diagram) MULTIFIDI