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Misleading Quantification: The Contingent Valuation of Environmental Quality
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  1. Misleading Quantification: The ContingentValuation of Environmental Quality Robert K. Niewijk

  2. Cato Institute Katten Muchin & Zavis Agrees with polluter pays principle How to value without market? Contingent valuation Use in Superfund laws 1986 NOAA 1994 Environmental Protection Agency Bias Academic literature Experimental evidence Introduction

  3. Unfamiliarity Time to assimilate information Preconceived notions Preexisting values for a resource Strawberries Substitutes Information Sources of Bias

  4. Assessments of Contingent Valuation's Validity • Consistency • Exxon Valdez litigation • not credible • whooping cranes • Household

  5. Different CV Surveys Measuring the Same Resource • Referendum vs Open end • Vs. Top Down Disaggregation • Embedding

  6. Real Values? • Sensitivity • “CV results strongly violate fundamental principles of the economic theory on which they are based, CV does not measure people's economic preferences for natural resources, and no amount of survey refinement or data adjustment will produce an accurate number”

  7. What does CV Actually Measure? • Support for the environment – Warm Glow • Well-defined values • Support other similar programs

  8. Not use CV “bet the company" proposition Raise costs Exclusion? Exxon Conference Studies survey valuing the deaths Implications

  9. EPA “Stringent" guidelines Discount Factor CV Surveys as Surrogate Referenda Conclusion Government