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Somatic and Special Senses. Chapter 10. Introduction. Sensory Receptors - detect environmental changes and trigger nerve impulses that travel on sensory pathways into the CNS for processing and interpretation. http://michaeldmann.net/pix\_4b/gust\_receptors.gif.

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introduction
Introduction
  • Sensory Receptors- detect environmental changes and trigger nerve impulses that travel on sensory pathways into the CNS for processing and interpretation

http://michaeldmann.net/pix_4b/gust_receptors.gif

2 large types of sensory receptors
2 large types of sensory receptors
  • 1. Somatic senses: touch, pressure, temperature, and pain
  • 2. Special senses: smell, taste, hearing, equilibrium, and vision

http://www.medicalook.com/systems_images/Somatic_senses.gif

receptors and sensations
Receptors and Sensations
  • Receptors are distinct to a type of environmental change
  • This selective response distinguishes the senses
  • 5 kinds
1 chemoreceptors
1. Chemoreceptors
  • Stimulated by changes in the chemical concentration of substances
2 pain receptors
2. Pain Receptors
  • Stimulated by tissue damage

https://courses.cit.cornell.edu/psych396/student2006/the_biology_of_pain/receptor2.jpg

3 thermoreceptors
3. Thermoreceptors
  • Stimulated by changes in temperature

http://resource.rockyview.ab.ca/t4t/bio30/images/m1/b30_m1_022_l.jpg

4 mechanoreceptors
4. Mechanoreceptors
  • Stimulated by changes in pressure or movement

http://bdml.stanford.edu/twiki/pub/Haptics/ProjectOverview/mechanoreceptors.jpg

5 photoreceptors
5. Photoreceptors
  • Stimulated by light energy

http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/d/d_02/d_02_m/d_02_m_vis/d_02_m_vis_1a.jpg

sensation
Sensation
  • Sensation-a feeling that occurs when the brain interprets sensory impulses
  • Impulse is read depending on what area of the brain receives it
  • One area may be sound and one area may be touch
projection
Projection
  • Projection-process where the cerebral cortex causes a feeling to stem from a source
  • It allows a person to pinpoint the region of stimulation (eyes & ears)
sensory adaptation
Sensory Adaptation
  • Sensory adaptation-sensory receptors stop sending signals when they are repeatedly stimulated
  • Can only be triggered if stimulus strength changes again
  • Think smell (phasic)
somatic senses
Somatic Senses
  • 1. Sensory Nerve Fibers
    • Common in epithelial tissues
    • Are associated with touch and pressure

http://www.exploringnature.org/graphics/anatomy/sensory%20organs.jpg

slide16
2. Meissner’s Corpuscles
    • Small masses of connective tissue
    • Located in hairless portions of the skin (lips, fingertips, palms, soles, nipples, external genitalia)
    • Interpret light touch

http://www.exploringnature.org/graphics/anatomy/sensory%20organs.jpg

slide17
3. Parcinian Corpuslces
    • Large structures of connective tissue
    • Located in deep tissue layers like ligaments and tendons
    • Respond to heavy pressure
temperature senses
Temperature Senses
  • 1. Warm Receptors - nerve endings that respond to warmer temperatures (sensitive above 77°, unresponsive above 113°F)
  • 2. Cold Receptors - nerve endings that respond to colder temperatures (sensitive between 50°F and 68°F)
sense of pain
Sense of Pain
  • These protect the body because tissue damage stimulates them
  • Usually unpleasant and signals the person to remove the stimulation
  • Pain is persistent and doesn’t go away
  • Four types
1 visceral pain
1. Visceral Pain
  • Occurs in visceral tissues such as heart, lungs, intestine

http://wehelpwhathurts.homestead.com/visceral-somatic_referral_patterns_resize_smaller.jpg

2 referred pain
2. Referred Pain
  • Feels as though it is coming from a different part (heart pain may be felt as pain in arm or shoulder)
  • Caused from Nerves passing through the same area

http://www.merckmanuals.com/media/home/figures/NEU_referred_pain.gif

3 acute pain
3. Acute Pain
  • Originates from skin, usually stops when stimulus stops (needle prick)

https://courses.cit.cornell.edu/psych396/student2006/the_biology_of_pain/receptor2.jpg

4 chronic pain
4. Chronic Pain
  • Dull aching sensations

http://criticalscience.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/pain-map_alphachimp_com.jpg

regulation of pain
Regulation of pain
  • Pain is interpreted by the Cerebral Cortex in the brain.
  • Three types of neuropeptides that inhibit pain: serotonin, enkephalins, endorphins.
  • Natural brain chemicals can be mimicked by drugs such as morphine.
morphine
Morphine

http://recoverylife.com/resources/gallery_photo/morphine60.jpg

special senses
Special Senses
  • Smell: olfactory organs
  • Taste: taste buds
  • Hearing equilibrium: Ears
  • Sight: Eyes
sense of smell
Sense of Smell
  • The sense of smell is associated with complex sensory structures in the upper region of the nasal cavity

http://www.umm.edu/graphics/images/en/8689.jpg

olfactory receptors
Olfactory Receptors
  • Chemoreceptors that are stimulated by chemicals that are dissolved in liquid
  • Aid in food selection because smell and taste are closely related

http://www.yalescientific.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/fulllengths-olfaction-2.jpg

olfactory organs
Olfactory Organs
  • Contain the olfactory receptors which are masses that cover the upper parts of the nasal cavity

http://www.medicalook.com/systems_images/Olfactory_sense.gif

olfactory receptor cells
Olfactory Receptor Cells
  • Bipolar neurons surrounded by epithelial cells
  • Covered in cilia which have receptor proteins that the odor chemicals bind to

http://openwetware.org/images/b/ba/Olfactory_System_2.jpg

olfactory bulbs
Olfactory Bulbs
  • Receive the nerve impulses from the receptor cells (located in the brain)

http://lynlaukimdak.wikispaces.com/file/view/42.jpg/219698964/42.jpg

olfactory tracts
Olfactory Tracts
  • Located inside the olfactory bulbs and interpret the nerve impulses

Smell Video

http://www.medicalook.com/systems_images/Olfactory_sense.gif

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