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Historical Change. Essential Questions How does the physical and human geography of the world change over time? What are the main causes of historical change?. Changes in Physical Geography.

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Historical change

Historical Change

Essential Questions

How does the physical and human geography of the world change over time?

What are the main causes of historical change?

Changes in physical geography
Changes in Physical Geography

  • Physical Regions change gradually as processes slowly change the Earth’s surface (tectonic plate movement, erosion).

    • Examples:

      • The Sahara Desert was once a jungle.

      • A land bridge once connected Siberia (in Russia) to Alaska.

Changes in human geography
Changes in Human Geography

  • Human Regions expand and contract as once culture gains or loses power.

    • Example:

      • Europeans conquer Native Americans and colonized the “New World.”

Changes in human geography cont d
Changes in Human Geography Cont’d

  • Example:

    • The Roman Empire changed as Rome expanded and then declined.

The roots of change
The Roots of Change

  • There are several factors that can cause a region or culture to change.

    • Migration: The arrival of a new group of people.

      • European immigrants in the 19th century brought new ideas, foods, and customs and traditions to TX and the US.

The roots of change cont d
The Roots of Change Cont’d

  • Cultural Diffusion: The arrival of new ideas, products, technologies, or cultural traits.

  • Trade: Exchange of goods with others.

    • Rome obtained goods from Egypt, China and Greece

The roots of change cont d1
The Roots of Change Cont’d

  • Conflict: Armed conflict is the use of force by opposing groups.

    • One group may conquer another group.

    • A country may collapse.

      • Example: US Civil War

The roots of change cont d2
The Roots of Change Cont’d

  • International Conflict: conflict between nations for territory, wealth, or resources.

    • Examples: US-Mexico War, World War II, Spanish-American War

  • Genocide: Attempt to kill an entire group of people.

    • Example: Nazi genocide of Jews in Europe (Holocaust), Hutu genocide of Tutsis in Rwanda (Movie: Hotel Rwanda).

  • Terrorism: The use of threats of terror against innocent civilians to gain attention and achieve and achieve a group’s aims.

Impact of conflict
Impact of Conflict

  • Conflict can lead to cultural change, conquest of one society by another or cause a government to collapse

    • Example: The Crusades

      • Europeans were exposed to Muslim technological achievements such as the use of the “0” in mathematics.

      • Led to increase in demand for Asian goods such as silks, rice, spices, coffee and glass mirrors.

Roots of change cont d
Roots of Change Cont’d

  • Technological Innovation: use of tools, materials, skills to meet human needs.

    • Changes in Transportation and Energy:

      • Steam Engine: factory, steamboat, train.

      • Automobiles and airplanes.

    • New Information Technologies:

      • Computers, Internet, GPS, GIS

    • Other Recent Developments:

      • Air Conditioning, Agriculture, Desalinization, Trade


  • Why do physical regions sometimes change over time?

  • Answer: Plate tectonic movements and erosion take a long period of time to cause significant changes to a physical region.

  • What was an important result of the Crusades?

    A. Arabs and Christians divided Jerusalem between them.

    B. Islamic kingdoms expanded into Europe.

    C. The exchange of goods increased between Europe and the Middle East.

    D. The Catholic Pope sought to block Crusaders from going to the Holy Land.



Which advancement in technology revolutionized the way ideas were spread throughout Western Europe at the end of the 15th Century?

A. Development of the astrolabe

B. Introduction of the telegraph

C. Improvements to the printing press

D. Creation of the telescope