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Folklore. Jessica Dockter University of Minnesota 2009 Adapted from Beth Brendler, 2008. Folklore. “The oldest of stories” Nursery rhymes, folktales, myths, epics, legends, fables, songs, and ballads Passed down by story tellers – oral tradition. Folklore.

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Folklore


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    1. Folklore Jessica Dockter University of Minnesota 2009 Adapted from Beth Brendler, 2008

    2. Folklore • “The oldest of stories” • Nursery rhymes, folktales, myths, epics, legends, fables, songs, and ballads • Passed down by story tellers – oral tradition

    3. Folklore • Folklore provides an opportunity for increasing multicultural understanding. • It reflects the values, hopes, fears, and beliefs of many cultures.

    4. Folklore • By recognizing the recurring themes in folklore from around the world, we create a bridge between peoples. • Universality of human values • Learning archetypes

    5. Evaluating Folklore • Sounds like spoken language, with rich natural rhythms • Reflects the cultural integrity of early retellings • Preserves the simple, straightforward plot structure of oral stories

    6. Evaluating Folklore • Explores significant universal themes • Illustrations • serve as examples of artistic excellence • compliment and extend the narrative • reflect the cultural heritage of the tale

    7. Characteristics • Derives from oral tradition • Heroes and heroines triumph over adversity by employing such traits as: • cleverness • bravery • supreme silliness

    8. Characteristics • Short plots • Little character development • Straightforward moral

    9. Characteristics • Stories contain very little ambiguity • good is good • evil is supremely evil • Conflict is identified early • Resolution is decisive

    10. Characteristics • Themes express the values of the people who created them • Language is direct • vivid vernacular • Setting is geographically vague • Time is vague

    11. Characteristics Taken from: http://pixel.fhda.edu/Content/Dept/InstrDev/Examples/Robert/Engl8/Lesson05/L5Learn.html

    12. Characters Heroes • Unusual births • Required to go on a quest • Have magical help • Must prove themselves through many trials • Richly rewarded for their heroism

    13. Characters Good mother (fairy godmother) vs Bad mother (wicked stepmother, witch)

    14. Literary conventions Story frame • Helps readers generalize the patterns • Once upon a time….they lived happily ever after • Long ago and far away

    15. Literary conventions Western cultures • Repeated use of the numbers 3 & 7 • 3 adventures, 3 tasks, 3 trials, 3 wishes, • 3 blind mice, 3 pigs, 3 bears • 7 dwarfs, 7 swans, 7 at one blow

    16. Literary conventions Native American cultures • Repeated use of the number 4 • 4 cardinal directions • 4 sacred colors East = Red = success or triumph North = Blue = defeat or trouble West = Black = death South = White = peace or happiness

    17. Motif A recurring element, repetition of a word or phrase, objects, ideas, characters.

    18. Motifs Cinderella stories • often contain a small shoe • a flight from a ball • a young sister who is mistreated • a prince • a wicked stepmother Yen Shen– Chinese – one of the oldest documented Cinderella stories

    19. Motifs Characters • Gods, witches, fairies, tricksters, stepmothers • Behave in stereotypical ways so readers can predict how they will behave • A representative human can be used to stand for a character trait

    20. Motifs Magical Objects, spells, curses, enchantments, and wishes • Snow White • Sleeping Beauty • Beauty and the Beast • Jack and the Beanstalk

    21. Motifs Trickery, tricksters • Anansi (a spider man) • Africa and the Carribean • Rabbit • West African tales • Tales from the South (Brer Rabbit) • Iktomi • Plains Indians

    22. Themes Enchantment tales • Good and evil is a metaphoric struggle between surface & deep qualities of goodness & beauty • The Beast is a prince that was enchanted because he was unkind. Beauty is able to see the goodness that lies beneath his brutish exterior.

    23. Themes Quest • Search for happiness or lost identity • Hero succeeds only after repeated trials, suffering, separation • Exhibits courage, sacrifice, gallantry, and cleverness

    24. Types of Folklore • Nursery Rhymes • Folk verse • Intended for very young children • Baa, Baa, Black Sheep • The Farmer in the Dell • Fables • A brief tale that presents a clear moral • The moral of the story is explicitly stated • The Tortoise and the Hare • The Ant and the Grasshopper

    25. Types of Folklore • Folktales • Cumulative Tales – each incident grows from a preceding one • The House that Jack Built • There Was an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Fly • Talking Animal Tales – animals talk with each other or with human beings • Brer Rabbit, • Anansi • Uncle Remus

    26. Types of Folklore • Folktales cont. • Noodlehead Tales – characters who are pure hearted but lack good judgment • The Three Sillies • Ole and Lena • Fairy Tales – magical tales with supernatural beings like trolls, giants, dragons, elves, ogres, fairies • Cinderella • Snow White

    27. Types of Folklore • Folktales cont. • Tall Tales – indigenous to the United States • combination of history, myth, and fact • John Henry • Johnny Appleseed

    28. Types of Folklore • Folktales • Hero Tales: Epic and Legends – stories focus on the courageous deeds of superhuman mortals and their struggles against each other or against gods and monsters • Illiad and the Oddessy • King Arthur • Gilgamesh • Epics are usually written in verse and consist of a cycle of tales that center on a legendary hero

    29. Types of Folklore • Folktales • Hero Tales: Epic and Legends – • Hero tales that are not epics are called legends • La Llorona/The Weeping Woman • Fractured Fairy Tales and Literary Folklore – • True Story of the Three Little Pigs • Big Momma Makes the World • Cinder Edna • Folk Songs

    30. Types of Folklore • Mythology • Stories developed to help humans interpret natural phenomena and human behavior. • Archetypal themes • life and death • love • revenge

    31. Types of Folklore • Mythology cont. • Creation myths • Pourquoi stories • Explain why or how something happened or came to be • Why Mosquitos Buzz in People’s Ears

    32. Types of Folklore • Mythology cont. • Greek and Roman Mythology • The Illiad • The Oddessy • Norse Mythology • The Death of Balder • Thor’s Hammer

    33. Types of Folklore • Mythology cont. • African Mythology • Anansi the Spider : a Tale From the Ashanti • The Leopard's Drum : an Asante Tale from West Africa • Native American Myths • Turtle's Race With Beaver : a Traditional Seneca Story • The Legend of the Indian Paintbrush

    34. Variants of Folktales • Cinderella • over 700 variants • Charles Perrault, Brothers Grimm • Persian, Irish, Korean, Vietnamese, Chinese, Creole, etc. • Sleeping Beauty • Briar Rose • Good Sister – Bad Sister • Mufaro’s Beautiful Daughter • The Talking Eggs

    35. Variants of Folktales • Rumpelstiltskin • Duffy and the Devil • The Girl Who Spun Gold • The Rumpelstiltskin Problem • Trit – a- Trot in Ireland • Whuppity Stoorie in Scotland • Jack and the Beanstalk • English folklore • Jack Tales - American folklore