Folklore. Jessica Dockter University of Minnesota 2009 Adapted from Beth Brendler, 2008. Folklore. “The oldest of stories” Nursery rhymes, folktales, myths, epics, legends, fables, songs, and ballads Passed down by story tellers – oral tradition. Folklore.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Folklore Jessica Dockter University of Minnesota 2009 Adapted from Beth Brendler, 2008
Folklore • “The oldest of stories” • Nursery rhymes, folktales, myths, epics, legends, fables, songs, and ballads • Passed down by story tellers – oral tradition
Folklore • Folklore provides an opportunity for increasing multicultural understanding. • It reflects the values, hopes, fears, and beliefs of many cultures.
Folklore • By recognizing the recurring themes in folklore from around the world, we create a bridge between peoples. • Universality of human values • Learning archetypes
Evaluating Folklore • Sounds like spoken language, with rich natural rhythms • Reflects the cultural integrity of early retellings • Preserves the simple, straightforward plot structure of oral stories
Evaluating Folklore • Explores significant universal themes • Illustrations • serve as examples of artistic excellence • compliment and extend the narrative • reflect the cultural heritage of the tale
Characteristics • Derives from oral tradition • Heroes and heroines triumph over adversity by employing such traits as: • cleverness • bravery • supreme silliness
Characteristics • Short plots • Little character development • Straightforward moral
Characteristics • Stories contain very little ambiguity • good is good • evil is supremely evil • Conflict is identified early • Resolution is decisive
Characteristics • Themes express the values of the people who created them • Language is direct • vivid vernacular • Setting is geographically vague • Time is vague
Characteristics Taken from: http://pixel.fhda.edu/Content/Dept/InstrDev/Examples/Robert/Engl8/Lesson05/L5Learn.html
Characters Heroes • Unusual births • Required to go on a quest • Have magical help • Must prove themselves through many trials • Richly rewarded for their heroism
Characters Good mother (fairy godmother) vs Bad mother (wicked stepmother, witch)
Literary conventions Story frame • Helps readers generalize the patterns • Once upon a time….they lived happily ever after • Long ago and far away
Literary conventions Western cultures • Repeated use of the numbers 3 & 7 • 3 adventures, 3 tasks, 3 trials, 3 wishes, • 3 blind mice, 3 pigs, 3 bears • 7 dwarfs, 7 swans, 7 at one blow
Literary conventions Native American cultures • Repeated use of the number 4 • 4 cardinal directions • 4 sacred colors East = Red = success or triumph North = Blue = defeat or trouble West = Black = death South = White = peace or happiness
Motif A recurring element, repetition of a word or phrase, objects, ideas, characters.
Motifs Cinderella stories • often contain a small shoe • a flight from a ball • a young sister who is mistreated • a prince • a wicked stepmother Yen Shen– Chinese – one of the oldest documented Cinderella stories
Motifs Characters • Gods, witches, fairies, tricksters, stepmothers • Behave in stereotypical ways so readers can predict how they will behave • A representative human can be used to stand for a character trait
Motifs Magical Objects, spells, curses, enchantments, and wishes • Snow White • Sleeping Beauty • Beauty and the Beast • Jack and the Beanstalk
Motifs Trickery, tricksters • Anansi (a spider man) • Africa and the Carribean • Rabbit • West African tales • Tales from the South (Brer Rabbit) • Iktomi • Plains Indians
Themes Enchantment tales • Good and evil is a metaphoric struggle between surface & deep qualities of goodness & beauty • The Beast is a prince that was enchanted because he was unkind. Beauty is able to see the goodness that lies beneath his brutish exterior.
Themes Quest • Search for happiness or lost identity • Hero succeeds only after repeated trials, suffering, separation • Exhibits courage, sacrifice, gallantry, and cleverness
Types of Folklore • Nursery Rhymes • Folk verse • Intended for very young children • Baa, Baa, Black Sheep • The Farmer in the Dell • Fables • A brief tale that presents a clear moral • The moral of the story is explicitly stated • The Tortoise and the Hare • The Ant and the Grasshopper
Types of Folklore • Folktales • Cumulative Tales – each incident grows from a preceding one • The House that Jack Built • There Was an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Fly • Talking Animal Tales – animals talk with each other or with human beings • Brer Rabbit, • Anansi • Uncle Remus
Types of Folklore • Folktales cont. • Noodlehead Tales – characters who are pure hearted but lack good judgment • The Three Sillies • Ole and Lena • Fairy Tales – magical tales with supernatural beings like trolls, giants, dragons, elves, ogres, fairies • Cinderella • Snow White
Types of Folklore • Folktales cont. • Tall Tales – indigenous to the United States • combination of history, myth, and fact • John Henry • Johnny Appleseed
Types of Folklore • Folktales • Hero Tales: Epic and Legends – stories focus on the courageous deeds of superhuman mortals and their struggles against each other or against gods and monsters • Illiad and the Oddessy • King Arthur • Gilgamesh • Epics are usually written in verse and consist of a cycle of tales that center on a legendary hero
Types of Folklore • Folktales • Hero Tales: Epic and Legends – • Hero tales that are not epics are called legends • La Llorona/The Weeping Woman • Fractured Fairy Tales and Literary Folklore – • True Story of the Three Little Pigs • Big Momma Makes the World • Cinder Edna • Folk Songs
Types of Folklore • Mythology • Stories developed to help humans interpret natural phenomena and human behavior. • Archetypal themes • life and death • love • revenge
Types of Folklore • Mythology cont. • Creation myths • Pourquoi stories • Explain why or how something happened or came to be • Why Mosquitos Buzz in People’s Ears
Types of Folklore • Mythology cont. • Greek and Roman Mythology • The Illiad • The Oddessy • Norse Mythology • The Death of Balder • Thor’s Hammer
Types of Folklore • Mythology cont. • African Mythology • Anansi the Spider : a Tale From the Ashanti • The Leopard's Drum : an Asante Tale from West Africa • Native American Myths • Turtle's Race With Beaver : a Traditional Seneca Story • The Legend of the Indian Paintbrush
Variants of Folktales • Cinderella • over 700 variants • Charles Perrault, Brothers Grimm • Persian, Irish, Korean, Vietnamese, Chinese, Creole, etc. • Sleeping Beauty • Briar Rose • Good Sister – Bad Sister • Mufaro’s Beautiful Daughter • The Talking Eggs
Variants of Folktales • Rumpelstiltskin • Duffy and the Devil • The Girl Who Spun Gold • The Rumpelstiltskin Problem • Trit – a- Trot in Ireland • Whuppity Stoorie in Scotland • Jack and the Beanstalk • English folklore • Jack Tales - American folklore