belief makes reality by charles p clark n.
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  1. “Belief Makes Reality”By Charles P. Clark • http://depts.washington.edu/egonline/selected-essays/ • Evaluate the title/Ironic Twist • A good title should be interesting, informative and argumentative, giving the reader a hint about the focus/direction, etc. • Sample Titles: • 1. “Eveline’s Dilemma: Trapped or Trashed?” by Dr. Gao • 2. “Handicapped by History” by James Loewen

  2. Personal vs. Universal/Collective • Experi’ential learning is the process of making meaning from direct experience. • Any broader appeal to the reader? • What is your larger point? • The CUSP Learning Goals (online) • https://sites.google.com/a/uw.edu/cusp-portfolio-gao/dciii-120f-course-reader

  3. Generalization of the claimBelief Makes Reality • Bellevue team (as something representative, a case study, a small sample to infer a large point) • Critique of the entire corporate culture in America • A larger backdrop that goes beyond the American corporate culture; • Generalization/transferrable to other disciplines/areas/fields across the board;

  4. Double-Column Notebook • Belief makes reality; • Subjective yearning • employees' philosophy of optimism, motivation, and individual empowerment • Identify fallacies • Belief makes reality?

  5. Formal features • 1. narrative element/dramatize • 2. parallel structure • 3. critical analysis/layers of breakdown • 4. argumentative mode • 5. citations/quotations

  6. Narrative EssayTo Tell a Story; To Chronicle Events • Midway between the formality of the argumentative essay and the informality of the speculative essay are narrative and expository essays. • Narrative essays include stories, sometimes a single incident, as in George ‘Orwell’s “Shooting an Elephant” (1936), or sometimes multiple events, as in Loren Eiseley’s “The Judgment of the Birds” (1956). • The stories in narrative essays are almost always autobiographical: they form a part of the writer’s experience.

  7. Narrative Essay • But even in cases where the story in such an essay is fictional rather than factual, it is used to make a point—the idea is primary. This distinguishes a narrative essay from a short story in which an idea may be inherent in the work, but where the fictional story per se takes precedence over any idea we may derive from it. ‘Orwell’s “Shooting an Elephant” for example consists largely of the story of how Orwell (or a fictional character) shot an elephant. Although the incident possesses considerable interest as a story, its primary purpose is to advance an idea about imperialism, which is presented explicitly midway through the essay and is referred to again at the end—repetition for thematic emphasis.

  8. Narrative and Argumentative • Summary of the story/plot • Presentation: chronological or otherwise • Claim: a debatable statement with a ripple effect ; it is an inference based on evidence and warrant; • A bloody scene • Claim Chart by hierarchy • Tree image: Central claim/Root/branches/leaves

  9. Best starts with a focal point of a controversy; • Because an argumentative essay attempts to change the way people think, it must focus on a debatable topic. More important, something worth debating, something culturally significant or philosophically intriguing; • Factual statements—those about which people do not disagree—are therefore not suitable for argument: that “There are 24 hours a day” is not debatable.

  10. The economy is entering a recession. • Example 1: • The economy is entering a recession. • Evidence should be specific, representative. According to somepolls, and surveys conducted by Washington Post, CNN, CNBC—implying something authoritative, • --The stock market is declining. • --The unemployment rate is increasing. • --The consumer confidence is dropping.

  11. Data • Data—sometimes called grounds or evidence—are those facts that establish the validity of the claim, that on which the claim is based. What counts as a fact may differ from discipline to discipline. • Data usually answers the question “how do you know?” Like the claim, data will be explicit, though the reasons for using particular evidence may not be explicit. (Evidence should be accurate, sufficient, representative, and relevant.)

  12. Warrants • Warrants are assumptions made on general rules, and principles. • --Warrant 1: These things are signs of an impending recession. • --Warrant 2: Overtime these things usually have preceded a recession.

  13. Warrant is an assumption • Warrants—an authorization or license to make the inference from evidence to claim. It is an assumption based on the general rules. • Warrants in academic arguments are often signaled by citations to relevant literature in a particular field.

  14. Claims Well supported with evidence and other means; Opinions Simply air what you think Claim vs. Opinion

  15. Counter-Argument • When you counter-argue, you consider a possible argument against your thesis or some aspect of your reasoning. This is a good way to test your ideas when drafting, while you still have time to revise them.

  16. Take a step back • Reservations/Rebuttals/Counter Arguments are exceptions to the rules. You need to take those things into consideration so that your arguments are more balanced and objective.

  17. Make a Concession • Unless there are other explanations such as… • --The stock market is declining probably because stocks have been overpriced on speculations. Now the bubbles are busted. • --The unemployment rate is increasing probably because there is a seasonal change in labor market. • --The consumer confidence is down because people may have other concerns at the moment.

  18. Allowing Counter-argumentation • Not every objection is worth entertaining, of course, and you shouldn't include one just to include one. But some imagining of other views, or of resistance to one's own, occurs in most good essays.

  19. Useful Phrases • You introduce this turn against with a phrase like One might object here that... or It might seem that... or It's true that... or Admittedly,...or Of course,... or with an anticipated challenging question: But how...? or But why...? or But isn't this just...? or But if this is so, what about...? Then you state the case against yourself as briefly but as clearly and forcefully as you can, pointing to evidence where possible. (An obviously feeble or perfunctory counter-argument does more harm than good.)

  20. The Turn Back • Your return to your own argument—which you announce with a but, yet, however, nevertheless or still—must likewise involve careful reasoning, not a flippant (or nervous) dismissal. In reasoning about the proposed counter-argument, you may

  21. Rhetorical Moves • refute it, showing why it is mistaken—an apparent but not real problem; • acknowledge its validity or plausibility, but suggest why on balance it's relatively less important or less likely than what you propose, and thus doesn't overturn it; • concede its force and complicate your idea accordingly—restate your thesis in a more exact, qualified, or nuanced way that takes account of the objection, or start a new section in which you consider your topic in light of it. This will work if the counter-argument concerns only an aspect of your argument; if it undermines your whole case, you need a new thesis.

  22. Where to Insert a Counter-Argument • Counter-argument can appear anywhere in the essay, but it most commonly appears • as part of your introduction—before you propose your thesis—where the existence of a different view is the motive for your essay, the reason it needs writing; • as a section or paragraph just after your introduction, in which you lay out the expected reaction or standard position before turning away to develop your own;

  23. Consistency in Your Argument • But watch that you don't overdo it. A turn into counter-argument here and there will sharpen and energize your essay, but too many such turns will have the reverse effect by obscuring your main idea or suggesting that you're ambivalent.

  24. Your conclusion should not contradict your claim • Racap your claim to close your argument: based on the above, I would argue that the economy is in a very bad shape. • Ideally, you should offer some solutions in the form of a proposal, • The aim is to move people to action;

  25. Example 2 • Watch out when you argue with Jack, he’ll be a good arguer. • (Because) Jack is a philosophy major. • Generally, philosophy majors are good arguers. (warrant) • Unless Jack is a failing student, philosophy majors usually study argument and become adept through writing and thinking critically. Recap your claims: Don’t mess with Jack.

  26. An exaggeration is an overstatement Hyperbole She's dying for a drink. However an understatement could be stronger than an overstatement; Exaggeration vs. Understatement

  27. An exaggeration is an overstatement Hyperbole She's dying for a drink. However an understatement could be stronger than an overstatement; Exaggeration vs. Understatement

  28. Air travel nowadays is like going through a root canal. a similarity between like features of two things, on which a comparison may be based: the analogy between the heart and a pump. A Claim in an analogy

  29. Root canal procedure: unhealthy or injured tooth, drilling and cleaning, filing with endofile, rubber filling and crown • Air travel nowadays is like going through a root canal.

  30. A claim made in a metaphor • Handicapped by History • Crippled by our History class

  31. 1st Attack 2nd Attack 3rd Attack 1st Defense 2nd Defense 3rd Defense Make a concession Brush away the counterargument Recap your claim Attack vs. Defense (Rebuttal)Block Method or Alternating Method

  32. Public school vs. homeschool • Formal learning/Better trained teaching professionals • Social setting for maturity in dealing with human relations; • Diversity in experience • Natural learning • Safe from bad influence/moral hazards like a lath house; • Undivided attention from teachers for better result;

  33. A Lath House

  34. Homeschool vs. Public School • To many parents and students, homeschool or home learning is more desirable. • Homeschool is more desirable for several reasons. • Considering the potential bad influence and other moral hazards from a public school, homeschool offers a more desirable sanctuary to many students at their tender age.

  35. Stay NeutralWhile A is like this, B is like that • Whereas homeschool offers natural learning, physical safety, moral purity or security, public schools reward students with formal learning, diverse social experiences and richer moral tapestry.

  36. Position takingOne is Better than Another • While these arguments/approaches are certainly interesting, it is more natural to consider [Kafka’s fiction as reflecting his life, especially his relations with his father. (Karen DiYanni, 165)] • While formal learning, diverse social experience and richer moral development are attractive at a public school, it is more natural…

  37. Claims 614 • Since the beginning of time we have been polluting the universe. ..we must therefore stop polluting Albany because pollution is destroying the air, the water, and the community. --parallel structure/open-ended/road map

  38. Claims: Opener • Example 2: Cultural loneliness, caused by or derived from language barriers, cultural deficits and cultural puritanism, intended or unintended, has still been haunting us in the context of multicultural America.

  39. Eveline’s Dilemma: Trapped or Trashed? • Claim: Though Eveline, the title character in James Joyce’ short story published in 1914, has a job, food, shelter, and folks whom she knows very well, the harsh fact remains that she has been trapped at home in more than one way.