Family health risks and nursing interventions Done by:Nosyba Salem HebaEsam Zakaria
Outline : - Introduction - Definition of the family . - Function of the family . - Family health . - Determinants of healthy . - Family risks . - Nursing role and intervention. - summary/conclusion . - Evidence based practice . - References .
Objective . By the end of this seminar the student will be able to :- 1. Define the family concept . 2. Determine family health risk . 3. Discuss family health risk . 4. Recognize nursing role and interventions .
Introduction - The family is the unit of service in all health care delivery. - The health of one member affects the welfare of other members in the family. - Every family is unique and it is affected by every aspect of community life. - The health service providers has to understand family ways, traditions, customs and beliefs of the family.
Family definition GROUP OF PERSON UNITED BY TIES OF BLOOD, MARRIAGE OR ADOPTION INTERACTING & COMMUNICATING WITH EACH OTHER IN THEIR RESPECTIVE SOCIAL ROLES
Function of the family - Socialization of family members. - economic stability. - care of dependent members. - emotional support for members. - satisfy social, intellectual, emotional and psychological needs of members.
Cont … - Teaches children rules for behaviour and socially approved conduct. - Sickness role, interactions among family members in health, disease, counselling and rehabilitation
Family health Family health is a dynamic, changing, relative state of well-being which includes the biological, psychological ,spiritual , sociological, and culture factors of the family system .
FAMILY HEALTH CARE NURSING Definedas “the process of providing for health care needs of families that are within the scope of nursing practice “ . ANCY KURIAN , I MSc.(N)
Determinants of family health - Living and working conditions - Physical environment, - Psycho-social environment - Education and economic factors - health practices - Cultural factors - Gender etc.
Family health risks Economic/ occupational Psychological Social Biological -Violence - Divorce - Low economic status . -Unemployment. - DM - HTN - Cancer - Suicide . - Drug abuse .
Diabetes mellitus - 347 million people worldwide have diabetes. - In 2004, an estimated 3.4 million people died from consequences of high fasting blood sugar . - More than 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. - WHO projects that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030.
Why do we consider diabetes as a family health risks ? Family history of diabetes is recognized as an important risk factor of the disease. Individuals who have a family history of diabetes can have two to six times the risk of diabetes compared with individuals with no family history of the disease . family medical history provides valuable genomic information because it represents the combination of inherited genetic susceptibilities and shared environmental and behavioral factors . The use of family history as part of a comprehensive risk assessment for an individual can be crucial in the prevention, early detection, and treatment of diabetes.
Hypertension Worldwide, raised blood pressure is estimated to cause 7.5 million deaths, about 12.8% of the total of all deaths. globally, the overall prevalence of raised blood pressure in adults aged 25 and over was around 40% in 2008.
Cancer - 8.2 million people worldwide died from cancer in 2012. - 60% of world’s total new annual cases occur in Africa, Asia and Central and South America . - 30%of cancers could be prevented .
Nursing intervention - Cancer prevention At least one-third of all cancer cases are preventable. As a nurse : - Physical inactivity, dietary factors, obesity and being overweight - Alcohol use. - Infections . - Environmental pollution . - Occupational carcinogens . - Radiation .
Definition and causes Violence : is the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation .
Facts about violence : - Each year, nearly 1.4 million people worldwide lose their lives to violence. For every person who dies as a result of violence, many more are injured and suffer from a range of physical, sexual, reproductive and mental health problems. - Violence places a massive burden on national economies, costing countries billions of US dollars each year in health care, law enforcement and lost productivity.
Nine Types of Violence and Abuse • Physical Violence Physical violence occurs when someone uses a part of their body or an object to control a person’s actions. • Sexual Violence Sexual violence occurs when a person is forced to unwillingly take part in sexual activity. • Emotional Violence Emotional violence occurs when someone says or does something to make a person feel stupid or worthless. • Psychological Violence Psychological violence occurs when someone uses threats and causes fear in an individual to gain control. • Spiritual Violence Spiritual (or religious) violence occurs when someone uses an individual’s spiritual beliefs to manipulate, dominate or control that person. • Cultural Violence Cultural violence occurs when an individual is harmed as a result of practices that are part of her or his culture, religion or tradition. • Verbal Abuse Verbal abuse occurs when someone uses language, whether spoken or written, to cause harm to an individual. • Financial Abuse Financial abuse occurs when someone controls an individual’s financial resources without the person’s consent or misuses those resources. • Neglect Neglect occurs when someone has the responsibility to provide care or assistance for an individual but does not.
Nursing interventions : violence is preventable and its impacts can be reduced : address underlying causes such as low levels of education, harsh and inconsistent parenting, concentrated poverty, unemployment and social norms supportive of violence. - violence prevention programmes in schools . - Promoting positive, nurturing relationships within families can prevent violence . - Community programmes can play a role in preventing violence . - Societies can prevent violence by reducing risks such as alcohol, guns, and economic and gender inequality .
الاردن يحتل المرتبة الثانية عربيا في عدد حالات الطلاق والخلع . • كشف تقرير صادر عن دائرة قاضي القضاة ان الاردن يحتل المرتبة الثانية بعد مصر في ارتفاع عدد حالات الطلاق عن الاعوام 2004 – 2008. • عدد حالات الطلاق التي تمت خلال السنوات الخمس الماضية بلغ حوالي 13218 حالة في جميع محافظات المملكة بينما كان مجموع عقود الزواج خلال نفس الفترة ما يقارب 309722 عقدا .
- Divorce is the legal breakup of a marriage. Like every major life change, divorce is stressful. It affects finances, living arrangements, household jobs, schedules, and more. If the family includes children, they may be deeply affected . Factors contribute to divorce : - Financial Difficulties - Work Stress and Obligations - Education Level - Parents' Divorces (past experience) - Age Difference Between Spouses . - Ineffective communication .
As a nurse what we can do : - Help to identify couples at risk . - provide couples skills training for ( conflict management , effective way of communication , stress management , anger management ) . - Seeking consultation from expertise before making the divorcing decision . - Divorce should be the last choice .
Effects of divorce on children - Behavior and conduct Boys: “externalizing”: aggression, hyperactivity, disruptive, delinquency, sub. Abuse Girls: “internalizing": anxiety, depression, withdrawal. - Social relationships . - Poorer psychological adjustment . - Relationship with parents: conflict, attention-seeking . - Poorer school performance .
Definition : Unemployment occurs when a person who is actively searching for employment is unable to find work. Unemployment is often used as a measure of the health of the economy. Factors that contribute to unemployment : - Rapid changes in technology - Inflation - Disability - Changes in tastes as well as alterations in the climatic conditions. This may in turn lead to decline in demand for certain services as well as products.
Cont… - Attitude towards employers - Willingness to work - Employee values - Discriminating factors in the place of work (may include discrimination on the basis of age, class, ethnicity, color and race). - Ability to look for employment
*Consequences of unemployment : - symptoms of somatization, depression, and anxiety were significantly greater in the unemployed than employed. - Low self esteem. unemployed made significantly more visits to their physicians, took more medications, and spent more days in bed sick than did employed individuals . As a nurse what we can do???
Conclusion Finally family risk are wide title … as a nurse remember that we can at least help to pass safely through these risks … Working with families helps families live alongside illness and increase their sense of wellness.
References 1. www.who.org 2. www.cdc.org 3. Shirley May Harmon Hanson. Family Health Care Nursing, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: F.A Davia Publishers; 2001.p. 4-19. 4. www.googlescolar.jo