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Historical Lingustics. WS 2005/6. Topics. Patterns of language change Explanations of lanaguae change Implications of language change. Grammatical changes. Wegen des Wetters > wegen dem Wetter Käme > würde kommen Meinetwegen > wegen mir Meines Vater‘s Auto > mein Vater sein Auto

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topics
Topics
  • Patterns of language change
  • Explanations of lanaguae change
  • Implications of language change
grammatical changes
Grammatical changes
  • Wegen des Wetters > wegen dem Wetter
  • Käme > würde kommen
  • Meinetwegen > wegen mir
  • Meines Vater‘s Auto > mein Vater sein Auto
  • Weil ich das nicht mag > weil ich mag das nicht
british newspapers
British newspapers

We seem to be moving … towards a social and linguistic situation in which nobody says or writes or probably knows anything more than an approximation to what he or she means.

[The Sunday Times 1999]

british newspapers5
British newspapers

English used to be a language which foreigners couldn’t pronounce but could often understand. Today it is rapidly becoming a language which the English can’t pronounce and few foreigners can understand.

[The Daily Telegraph 1968]

british newspapers6
British newspapers

We go out of our ways to promulgate incessantly … the very ugliest sounds and worst possible grammars.

[The Sunday Times 1986]

recent changes in english
Recent changes in English

(1) The media is not objective.

(2) These sort of things.

(3) He is like: ‚….‘

recent changes in english8
Recent changes in English

(1) Fortunately, I have a spare fan belt.

(2) Honestly, you have no taste in clothes.

(3) Hopefully, we‘ll be there in time for lunch.

recent changes in english9
Recent changes in English

(1) My care is being broken.

(2) My house is being painted.

(3) This problem is being discussed in class.

(1) My car is repairing.

(2) My house is painting.

(3) This problem is discussing in class.

what linguists say
What linguists say

The history of all Aryan languages is nothing but a gradual process of decay.

[Max Müller 1886]

what linguists say11
What linguists say

In the evolution of languages the discarding of old flexions goes hand in hand with the development of simpler and more regular expedients that are rather less liable than the old ones to produce misunderstandings.

[Otto Jespersen 1922]

what linguists say12
What linguists say

Progress in the absolute sense is impossible, just as it is in morality or politics. It is simply that different states exist, succeeding each other, each dominated by certain general laws imposed by the equilibrium of the forces with which they are confronted. So it is with language.

[Joseph Vendryes 1923]

readings
Readings

Aitchison, J. Language Change. Progress or Decay. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Croft, W. 2000. Explaining Language Change. An Evolutionary Approach. Harlow: Longman.

McMahon, A.M.S. 1995. Understanding Language Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hock, H.H. 1991. Principles of Historical Linguistics.Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Trask, R.L. 1996. Historical Linguistics. London: Arnold.

slide14

Course script

Digitale Bibliothek Thüringen

Search: History of the English language

slide15

Everything that students have always wanted to know about phonology (but where ashamed to ask )

classification of consonants
Classification of consonants
  • Voicing
  • Manner of articulation
  • Place of articulation
voiced voiceless consonants
Voiced – voiceless consonants

[f] father

[v] vase

[s] salt

[z] zoo

[t] tree

[d] door

manner of articulation
Manner of articulation

Plosives

Fricatives

Affricates

Nasals

Liquids

Glides

[p] [b] [t] [d] [k] [g] [?]

[c] [J] [q] [G]

[C] [x] [q] [G]

[f] [v] [T] [D] [s] [z] [S] [Z]

[tS] [dZ]

[ts] [pf]

[m] [n] [Î]

[®]

[l] [r]

[R]

[w] [y]

place of articulation
Place of articulation

Bilabial

Labiodental

Interdental

Alveolar

Pala-Alev.

Velar

Uvular

Pharyngeal

[p] [b] [m] [w]

[f] [v]

[T] [D]

[t] [d] [s] [z] [n] [l] [r]

[S] [Z] [tS] [dZ] [y]

[c] [J]

[k] [g] [Î] [w]

[x] [æ]

[q] [G]

[É] [¿]

classification of vowels
Classification of vowels
  • height
  • advancement
  • lip rounding
  • tenseness
phonemes and allophones
Phonemes and allophones

[thOt] top aspirated

[stOp] stop plain

/p t k/ → [ph th kh] / #__, V'

[p t k] elsewhere

contrastive complementary distribution
Contrastive – complementary distribution

[l{k] lack [param] wind

[r{k] rack [irim] name

[lif] leaf [pal] foot

[rif] reef [mal] horse

[l] → [r] / V __ V

[l] elsewhere

[r] → [l] / __#

[r] elsewhere

aspiration
Aspiration

[thOt] top aspirated

[stOp] stop plain

/p t k/ → [ph th kh] / #__, V'

[p t k] elsewhere

nasalization
Nasalization

[kæn] can

[kãm] come

/V/→ [V] / __N

[V] elsewhere

vowel lengthening
Vowel lengthening

[bE:d] bed

[h{:v] have

/V/→ [V:] / __ [+voice]

[V] elsewhere

flapping
Flapping

[böQr] butter

[bEQr] better

/t/→ [Q] / after stressed syllables at the beginning of an unstressed syllable

[t] elsewhere

morphophomemics
Morphophomemics

[k{ts] cats [kis@z] kisses

[dOgs] dogs [dZ@r{fs] giraffes

[bUS@z] bushes [garaZ@z] garages

[karz] cars [m{tS@z] matches

[laIts] lights [dETs] deaths

[b{Îks] banks

[s] after voiceless speech sound

[z] after voiced speech sounds

[@z] after sibilants

morphophonemics
Morphophonemics

[ImpOsIbl] impossible

[InsEns@tIv] insensitive

[IÎkOnsIst@nt] inconsistent

[m] before labials

[n] before alveolars

[Î] before velars

exercise 1
Exercise 1
  • Provide the phonetic symbol
  • High front tense unrounded vowel
  • Low back lax unrounded vowel
  • Voiced labiodental fricative
  • Voiceless palatal fricative
  • Voiced velar nasal

[i]

[a]

[v]

[S]

[Î]

exercise 2
Exercise 2

Provide the articulatory features

  • [z]
  • [dZ]
  • [y]
  • [I]
  • [U]

Voiced, alveolar, fricative

Voiced, palatal-alveolar, affricate

Voiced, palatal, glide

High, front, lax, unrounded

High, back, lax rounded

exercise 3
Exercise 3

Identify the common articulatory features

  • [k, Î, g, x]
  • [v, Z, z, D]
  • [w, y]
  • [i, e, o, u]
  • [e, o, O, E]

velar

voiced fricatives

glides

tense vowels

mid vowels

exercise 4
Exercise 4

Provide the IPA symbol for the first speech sound

  • though
  • easy
  • knife
  • thought
  • contact

[D]

  • judge
  • Thomas
  • physics
  • civic
  • use

[dZ]

[t]

[i]

[f]

[n]

[s]

[T]

[k]

[y]

exercise 5
Exercise 5

Write in ordinary English

  • [ritS]
  • [rIdZ]
  • [kaIt]
  • [{ktSn]
  • [T{Îks]
  • [Sules]

reach

ridge

kite

action

thanks

shoelace

exercise 5 italian
Exercise 5 (Italian)

[faÎgo] mud [tinta] dye

[tEnda] tent [tEÎgo] I keep

[tiÎgo] I dye [fuÎgo] mushroom

[nero] black [byaÎka] shite

[aÎke] also [dansa] dance

[dZEnte] people [sapone] soap

exercise 5 italian39
Exercise 5 (Italian)

[faÎgo] mud [tinta] dye

[tEnda] tent [tEÎgo] I keep

[tiÎgo] I dye [fuÎgo] mushroom

[nero] black [byaÎka] shite

[aÎke] also [dansa] dance

[dZEnte] people [sapone] soap

exercise 6 german
Exercise 6 (German)

[axt] eight [IC] I

[bux] book [ECt] real

[lOx] hole [sprIC] speak

[ho:x] hoch [lEC@ln] smile

[fluxt] flight [riC@n] smell

[lax@n] laugh [fECt@n] to fence

exercise 6 german41
Exercise 6 (German)

[axt] eight [IC] I

[bux] book [ECt] real

[lOx] hole [sprIC] speak

[ho:x] hoch [lEC@ln] smile

[fluxt] flight [riC@n] smell

[lax@n] laugh [fECt@n] to fence

exercise 7 old english
Exercise 7 (Old English)

[briÎgan] to bring [lUvU] love

[driÎkan] to drink [mannes] mans

[f{st] fast [mo:na] moon

[fi:fta] fifth [ni:xsta] next

[fOlk] folk [Offrian] to offer

[fOnt] font [Ovans] oven

[ha:t] hot [n:on] noon

[hlo:T] troop [ru:x] rough

[TUÎgEn] full grown [l@Îgan] to lengthen

[nixt] night [hr{vn] raven

exercise 7 old english43
Exercise 7 (Old English)

[briÎgan] to bring [lUvU] love

[driÎkan] to drink [mannes] mans

[f{st] fast [mo:na] moon

[fi:fta] fifth [ni:xsta] next

[fOlk] folk [Offrian] to offer

[fOnt] font [Ovans] oven

[ha:t] hot [n:on] noon

[hlo:T] troop [ru:x] rough

[TUÎgEn] full grown [l@Îgan] to lengthen

[nixt] night [hr{vn] raven

exercise 7 old english44
Exercise 7 (Old English)

[briÎgan] to bring [lUvU] love

[driÎkan] to drink [mannes] mans

[f{st] fast [mo:na] moon

[fi:fta] fifth [ni:xsta] next

[fOlk] folk [Offrian] to offer

[fOnt] font [Ovans] oven

[ha:t] hot [n:on] noon

[hlo:T] troop [ru:x] rough

[TUÎgEn] full grown [l@Îgan] to lengthen

[nixt] night [hr{vn] raven

exercise 7 old english45
Exercise 7 (Old English)

[briÎgan] to bring [lUvU] love

[driÎkan] to drink [mannes] mans

[f{st] fast [mo:na] moon

[fi:fta] fifth [ni:xsta] next

[fOlk] folk [Offrian] to offer

[fOnt] font [Ovans] oven

[ha:t] hot [n:on] noon

[hlo:T] troop [ru:x] rough

[TUÎgEn] full grown [l@Îgan] to lengthen

[nixt] night [hr{vn] raven

germanic
Germanic

Germanic

West Germanic North Germanic East Germanic

English Swedish Gothic

Frisian Danish Vandal

German Norwegian Burgundian

Yiddish Icelandic

Dutch

Afrikaans

romance
Romance

French Catalan

Italian Galician

Spain Sardinian

Portuguese Provencal

Romanian Rhomansh

old languages
‘Old’ Languages

Indo-European (3500)

Semitic

Chinese

Japanese

Arabic

Turkish

Dravidian

African languages

Native American languages

phonetic evidence
Phonetic evidence

You spotted snakes with double tongue,

Thorny hedge-hogs, be not seen;

Newts, and blind-worms, do no wrong;

Come not near our fairy queen.

(Shakespeare)

phonetic evidence59
Phonetic evidence

‘cosul’ consul

‘cesor’ censor

(Latin inscriptions)

phonetic evidence60
Phonetic evidence

‘We produce this letter by pressing the lower lip on the upper teeth. The tongue is turned back towards the roof of the mouth, and the sound is accompanied by a gentle puff of breath.’

(Roman grammarian)

slide61

700 English

500 Armenian

400 Gothic

0

200 Latin

400 Classical Sanskrit

800 Greek

1000 Old Persian

1200 Hittite

1500 Vedic Sanskrit

3000 Proto Indo-European

slide63

English German Swedish

sun Sonne sol

house Haus hus

cat Katze kat

apple Apfel äpple

father Vater fader

hand Hand hand

go gehen gar

see sehen sar

hear hören höra

run rennen rännar

dream träumen drömar

english german sound correspondences
English-German sound correspondences

time Zeit

tongue Zunge

ten zehn

tame zahm

tent Zelt

to zu

two zwei

twins Zwillinge

second germanic sound shift
Second Germanic sound shift

time Zeit

tongue Zunge

ten zehn

that das

there da

through durch

pan Pfanne

path Pfad

pole Pfahl

hat hassen

eat essen

let lassen

grip greifen

deep tief

sleep schlafen

english german sound correspondences66
English-German sound correspondences

cheese

child

chin

cheery

church

king

Käse

Kind

Kinn

Kirsche

Kirche

König

grimm s law
Grimm’s law

*p t k  f T x/h

*b d g  p t k

*bh dh gh  b d g

exceptions to grimm s law
Exceptions to Grimm’s law

[p t k]

[f T x] [b d g]

Sanskrit Old English

vártate weorTan

varárta wearT

vavrtimá wurdon

vavrta:ná worden

verner s law
Verner’s law

[p t k]  [f T x] / [stressed syllable] __

 [b d g] / [unstressed syllable] __

neogrammarian hypothesis
Neogrammarian Hypothesis

Every sound change takes place according to laws that admit no exceptions.

[Karl Brugmann]

internal reconstruction
Internal Reconstruction

[D] [T]

father think

mother thief

feather thick

heather thin

weather thigh

bother thank