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مثالهايي از موضوعات تحقيقاتی در زمينه ماشينهای کشاورزی و صنايع وابستهدر تعدادی از دانشگاه ها Research Topics in Agricultural Engineering and Related Area
Agricultural Safety and Health • Human Presence Sensors and Control Systems to Prevent Machinery Entanglement Injuries • Modeling Agricultural Downtime Losses Resulting from Injuries, Breakdowns, and Other Lost Time • Preventing Combine Fire Losses Through Improved Design and Safe Operation • Surveillance of Work-Related Deaths on Minnesota Farms موضوع بعد
Objectives • To develop an effective prototype sensor-based human presence detection system that prevents people from being entangled in dangerous agricultural and industrial equipment. Project Description Over the past 10 years, almost 300 Minnesota farmers, farm employees, and children have died because of hazards in the farm workplace. A significant percentage of these fatalities result from entanglement with rotating power take-offs, drive shafts, gears, belt drives, and other dangerous components that are rotating at high speed and transmitting large amounts of power. This project examines the application of existing electronic sensor technologies to detect and protect people who are working near dangerous, rotating agricultural and industrial machinery.
Objectives of this project include:Develop methods and engineering economics models to estimate the cost of downtime in the food production industry. • Determine the key parameters that affect the magnitude of downtime costs resulting from injuries, machinery fires, mechanical breakdowns, and other downtime causes. Project Description In most complex industrial systems where income and profit are dependent on timeliness of production operations, downtime can be a major cost. This downtime can result from any factor including poor scheduling decisions, mechanical breakdowns and malfunctions, personal injuries, or even the need to cease harvesting or planting because of the demands of off-farm jobs. In production agriculture, downtime from any cause can result in reduced yields, increased processing costs, greater labor and replacement equipment costs, and other major economic losses. Over the last several years, a linear programming technique has been developed to estimate the financial costs associated with downtime experienced by farmers during critical cropping periods. This information is being used in educational presentations about farm safety and also as a tool for helping producers make better decisions about time management, machine sizing, and other important decisions.
Objective Summarize currently available information related to the magnitude and frequency of grain combine fire losses throughout the country Engage the insurance and agricultural equipment industries in cooperative efforts to develop recommendations for more fire resistant equipment designs, operator safety recommendations, and fire control equipment selection. Project DescriptionFires on grain combines and other types of self-propelled farm equipment are a significant problem, resulting in property damage and downtime. When a fire occurs in a combine, there is also risk for personal injury to the machine operator. These fires tend to spread quickly and can be difficult to extinguish, especially if they are not detected in the early stages of fire development. This project involves collecting and summarizing all available data that describe the nature and magnitude of the problem of fires on grain combines and then communicating this information to machinery manufacturers, insurers, and others with a risk in reducing the incidence and magnitude of combine fire losses.
ObjectiveMonitor farm work-related fatality events and the circumstances that surround these events. Analyze the characteristics of the host, agent, and environment for each fatality event and use summary data to more effectively target extension education and research-related prevention efforts. Provide current data on farm deaths and non-fatal injuries (from other sources) to various agencies and individuals engaged in prevention activities to assist in program planning and goal setting. Project DescriptionA database is used to track and analyze all fatalities that occur in the farm workplace. Currently, the database holds fatality data from 1980 to the present. Data are obtained from news clippings, death certificates, and case reports. We use the fatality data to give us a picture of the kinds of fatalities that occur in Minnesota. All deaths occurring in the farm work environment, including those of children and visitors, are included in the database. This surveillance helps us bring important prevention information to the attention of Minnesota residents so that they will be aware of potential dangers in the farm work environment.
Bio processing and Food • Improvement in Thermal Processes for Foods • Ohmic Heating of Particulate Foods • Application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Polymer Science to the Study of Storage Stability in Food Systems • Ozone Treatment To Reduce or Remove Pesticides in Fruits and Vegetables • Maintaining Grain Quality During Drying and Storage موضوع بعد
Objective The objective of this research is to evaluate rheological behavior and constitutive equations for food products. These constitutive equations can be used in simulations during various processing operations. Project Description The formation of foams, such as bread dough, involves bubble nucleation and growth, microphase separation, rupture of thin films, and finally gelling. The reaction and buildup of mechanical properties will be monitored using flooded parallel plate geometry in a rheometer. In order to simulate the bread baking process, the temperature as a function of time was monitored. The dough was placed in an oven and temperature at several points was recorded in a computer as a function of time. A self-tuning temperature controller was used to control the temperature of the rheometer in the exact rate as the baking process. A previously recorded temperature profile for the formulation to be studied, with data spaced every 0.5 seconds, was used as a moving set point for the heaters. The rheometer was operated in the dynamic mode; the measurements of storage and loss moduli were obtained at different frequencies and strains to obtain the maximum differences between measurements of samples of differing compositions (gluten content, gluten/starch ratio, and water content).
ObjectiveThe objective of the project is to develop a technique that enables process developers to determine the level of thermal sterility rendered on foods during ohmic heating. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique will be used to non-destructively produce temperature maps of particulate foods undergoing ohmic heating. Project Description The application of ohmic energy in heating low-acid food products is producing considerable interest in the food industry. When electric current passes through a multiphase system consisting of food particles suspended in liquid, uniform heating of the system cannot be expected due to the inhomogeneity of electrical properties and particle distribution and orientation. It is essential to know the temperature distribution in the system, especially the particles, in order to calculate the lethal treatment delivered to potentially harmful microorganisms during the ohmic heating process. In this study, hardware and software are being developed for rapid and reliable temperature mapping. The key issues to be addressed are (1) structural dependence of MRI parameters, (2) imaging artifacts, (3) fat interference, (4) data acquisition time, and (5) reliable mathematical modeling.
Objective The goal of the project is to use new approaches to improve understanding of physiochemical and biological stability of food systems. The specific objectives are to: Develop novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques (NMR and MRI) for the study of the relationships between the glass transition process, state of water, and physiochemical and biological stability of food systems. Investigate the effects of food constituents (such as starch, gluten, fat, and water) and processing techniques (baking, for example) on the physical structure, texture, and chemical reactivity of food systems. Project DescriptionInstability of foods is a major concern in the development and maintenance of combat ration systems. Foods can deteriorate during storage or transportation and develop undesirable or even unacceptable flavor, texture, and color. Water plays an essential role in the stability of foods. Both the state and the amount of water in a food material are important. These are influenced by the initial conditions, which are affected by formulation and processing conditions, and by physical and chemical changes during storage and transportation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and polymer science techniques can be used to determine the initial water and structure conditions and to monitor the changes in these conditions during storage and transportation.Results from this project will be used to develop better formulation, processing technology, packaging, and storage conditions for combat ration systems.
Objective The objectives of the present study are to determine the susceptibility of the organophosphrous pesticides such as malathion to ozonation, evaluate the effectiveness of ozonation on pesticides degradation compared with the commonly used chlorination, and apply the method to fruit and vegetable treatment. Project Description Ozonation has been shown to be an effective technique to degrade pesticides and deactivate a very large number of microorganisms. Compared to chlorination, ozonation is more powerful in pesticide residue degradation without leaving any hazardous chemicals. Its application also includes increasing storage life and sanitizing the surfaces of fruit, vegetables, and other agricultural products. Since ozone does not remain in the water and surface matrix very long, there is no concern about consumption of ozone residue in food products. In this study, we will test our hypothesis using aqueous model systems first and then further evaluate the feasibility using fruits and vegetables with surface pesticides residues.
ObjectiveThe overall purpose of our research is to reduce use of chemical insecticides for managing insects (specifically Indian meal moth) in stored grain. Project DescriptionAlternatives to chemical insecticides are needed for managing stored grain insects. Insects have become resistant to some traditional stored grain chemical insecticides and there is growing concern about the impact of insecticides on the environment and on human health. It is well known that insect activity slows as temperature decreases. Most insects become dormant below certain critical temperatures and many insects die if held at a low enough temperature for a long enough time. In the northern parts of the U.S. grain growing areas, it should be possible to manage stored grain insect populations by using aeration with outdoor air to control temperatures inside bins of stored grain at levels that limit insect activity and possibly even kill insects. More information is needed on the specific time-temperature relationships needed to kill insects and on the typical number of hours available at various outdoor temperatures in order to develop recommendations that can be used to limit stored grain insect populations and reduce the need for chemical insecticides.
Development of Machinery Systems and Sensors for Site-Specific Farming Biosensor Development Controlled Environments for Animal and Plant Production and Commodity Storages Mechanical and Structural Systems Natural Resources Conservation and Management Processing for Adding Value to Biological Materials Safety and Systems Engineering Only topics! موضوع بعد
ObjectiveTo investigate the precision needed for sensing biological parameters in the landscape including crop residues, soil nutrients, crop yield (for grain crops and root crops), and soil moisture. To develop machines and assist others in developing machines for use in precision farming activities. To investigate the economics of using variable-rate technologies. Project Description Interest in site-specific farming over the past few years has been driven by newly developed agricultural technology. Equipment is now available that can locate machinery on the field and vary the inputs being applied, or record the yield of the crop being harvested. This equipment will help farmers improve economic competitiveness.We have developed techniques for computer-enhanced rapid measuring and mapping of crop residue. We have also developed a sensor that determines the effect of tillage on the soil. This sensor should help farmers reduce erosion and select machinery, crops, and husbandry methods. We have developed an automatic soil sampler for use in precision farming and soil mapping. We have also initiated research on the use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a possible method for measuring soil nutrients, texture, and moisture content.
ObjectiveTo investigate the use of a multifrequency RF sensor in measuring physical and chemical properties of granular materials including grains, soil, and fertilizer. Project DescriptionThe value of newly developed row crop varieties, such as high oil corn or soy beans, maintain their added value only if their identity can be maintained as they are moved from the farm to the end user. At this time there are essentially no methods for on-line monitoring of these crops. Their assay is confirmed and identity is maintained by physical sampling and time consuming and labor intensive laboratory procedures.An on-line sensor capable of accurately monitoring specific value adding traits would certainly simplify and expedite tracking commodities moving from the producer toward their ultimate use. Such a sensor would allow automated sorting at bulk receiving areas, which in turn could allow the present transportation and storage infrastructure to function largely as is.The project is to examine the spectral response of a commercially available sensor (MoisturePLUS™On-Line Sensor) to various types of cereal grain, soils and granular fertilizers, with varying physical properties. The demonstrated use of the sensor has been to measure sample moisture content and sample density. The proposed work will examine specific sensor response to starch, oil, and protein content in grain samples. Additionally we will investigate using the sensor on other bio-related granular products. If we can use the sensor to determine the mass flow and bulk density of granular fertilizer, then it will be advantageous to use the device in controlling the application of fertilizer in precision farming. Other work may include measuring soil moisture in real time. Traditionally this has been an invasive procedure, however the RF device being investigated may have the ability to measure soil moisture in the seed layer during planting.
topics include:Drying with desiccantsfor food processing operations; optimal sizes and/or environments for grain bins or other commodity storage facilities; greenhouse irrigation systems; nutrient management in greenhouses; greenhouse wetland systems; greenhouse heating; animal housing systems; behavior, safety and comfort of animals and workers; heat stress relief for animals; air quality/animal performance interactions; air quality/human respiratory responses; modeling air quality in buildings; environmental control for plant systems; mushroom production systems; and use of enthalpy wheels in ventilation systems.
research includes:Pesticide application systems (variable rate, draft control, air-blast); design of agricultural machinery systems; evaluation and improvement of animal feeding systems; forage harvesting and storage; feeding systems to optimize animal performance; optimizing the use of forages and other ruminant feed resources; automation in existing food processing plants; computer vision systems for non-destructive evaluation of food products; robotics applications in fruit and vegetable mechanization; radiotelemetry for predicting damage during mechanical handling; vehicle tracking systems; sensor development for precision agriculture; remote sensing for crop assessment; GPS and GIS development and applications in agriculture; fuel cells and microturbines for on-site electricity generation; wood engineering; analysis/design of post frame structures; hardwood glue-laminated design; wood bridge design; bulk solids storage dynamic loads; load deformation behavior of feeds, grains, fertilizers, and pesticides; finite element and boundary element modeling of structural systems; interactions between structural materials and granular media; and alternative structural systems for housing.
projects include:Agricultural mapping systems; tillage system effects on runoff, erosion, and pollutant transport; erosion processes; hydrology of quality turfgrass areas; drinking water quality and treatment for domestic and livestock use; numerical modeling of water and pollutant transport processes; methods for identifying critical nutrient contributing areas in watersheds; GIS-based evaluation of non-point pollution from agricultural lands; modeling the physical and economic aspects of conservation and nutrient management practices; water quality under greenhouse systems; utilization of sludge on forest and non-agricultural land; utilization of recyclable materials in agricultural systems; decontamination of polluted soils; transformation, uptake, and movement of wastes and chemicals applied to soils; on-site wastewater treatment and management; milking center wastewater disposal systems; composting and refeeding residues from agricultural production, food processing, and dining facilities; biogas production from animal manures and other biological materials; biogas utilization for generation and vehicle power; and odor control for mushroom and animal production facilities.
projects include:Agricultural mapping systems; sedimentation basin design; tillage system effects on runoff, erosion, and pollutant transport; erosion processes; hydrology of quality turfgrass areas; drinking water quality and treatment for domestic and livestock use; numerical modeling of water and pollutant transport processes; methods for identifying critical nutrient contributing areas in watersheds; GIS-based evaluation of non-point pollution from agricultural lands; modeling the physical and economic aspects of conservation and nutrient management practices; water quality under greenhouse systems; utilization of sludge on forest and non-agricultural land; utilization of recyclable materials in agricultural systems; decontamination of polluted soils; transformation, uptake, and movement of wastes and chemicals applied to soils; on-site wastewater treatment and management; milking center wastewater disposal systems; composting and refeeding residues from agricultural production, food processing, and dining facilities; biogas production from animal manures and other biological materials; biogas utilization for generation and vehicle power; and odor control for mushroom and animal production facilities.
research includes: Flow behavior of powder and granular food products; aseptic processing of food products; food biosensors; on-line computer control of food processing operations; modeling heat transfer mechanisms during thermal processing of foods; food automation and control; smart food systems; storage reaction kinetics of biotechnology-derived products; mechanical properties of food and other biological materials; dielectric properties of food and other biological materials; new technologies in food processing; constitutive models for bulk foods; microscopic approach for load response of granular materials; thermophysical properties of freezing and frozen foods; failure mechanisms of food and other biological materials; computer models of food products during microwave heating; numerical modeling of food processing operations; microwave processing of foods; food safety during minimal and added-value processing; industrial microbiology/fermentation.
projects include:Expert systems for food process engineering; machine design and systems management; structural and environmental modification; natural resources engineering and management; precision agriculture applications; tractor stability information processing; agricultural accident analysis; simulation of pasture utilization and other forage-animal systems; human factors engineering for safety; machinery safety demonstration program development; hazard reduction for youthful and aged workers; agricultural occupational health; manure storage and handling safety; animal handling safety; energy management systems; non-destructive evaluation of quality; strategies for optimal use of energy in food production and processing systems; and impacts of deregulation of electricity generation on food production and processing systems.
عناوين مربوط به ميوه ها Fruits & Vegetables
Subject: Non-destructive Firmness Measuring Device for the Quality Assessment of Apples. • The firmness of an apple is a key attribute to knowing the quality, maturity, and value of the crop. The current industry standard for measuring the firmness (Magness-Taylor test) punctures the apple, greatly reducing its value. Methods that measure firmness without damage to the apple could lead to improved prediction of harvest time, online quality inspection, improved storage conditions and handling, and general improvement of consumer satisfaction. • The research involves the measurement of the bioyield point to determine the firmness of an apple. The measurement procedure of the bioyield point is similar to that of a Stress-Strain test except the test stops at an initial stress peak. This peak correlates to the apple’s structure compressing and the cellular structure beginning to burst. The key element to performing a successful test is the use of a specifically designed rubber tip. This maximizes the contact area with the apple, providing a uniform stress distribution. A successful measurement of the bioyield point incurs minimal damage the apple’s appearance and structure. • The bioyield probe I have constructed was designed for field use. It operates on battery power and runs on a stand-alone programmable microchip. This allows the collection of data without the need of a power source or computer connection to control the probe. After data collection has occurred, I can download the data to a computer for further analysis and record keeping. I intend to verify the design with several apple varieties by comparing results with the Magness-Taylor test. In addition, I may correlate the bioyield firmness to the maturity of the apple and moisture loss of the upper cellular layers. I hope that my results will provide accurate information about the quality of the apple and that my bioyield probe will become a useful tool for the industry.
Subject: Imaging Spectroscopy for Determining the Optical Properties of Apple Fruit • The overall objective of this research is to investigate a new optical sensing technique for determining the optical properties of apple fruit. Imaging spectroscopy will be used to determine the absorption and scattering coefficients of fruit tissue. The relationship between these two coefficients and fruit sugar content and firmness will also be established. • Hyperspectral images from apple fruit will be acquired in the visible and near-infrared region. Analytical methods (diffusion equation and multiple light scattering theory) will be used to extract the absorption and scattering coefficients from the hyperspectral image data of apple fruit, and numerical methods (finite element analysis and Monte Carlo simulation) will be used to study light scattering and absorption in apple fruit and their relationship with fruit sugar content and firmness. • This research will provide an approach of directly extracting fundamental optical information from apple fruit, and the results can be used to develop a new nondestructive sensing method for fruit internal quality based on the principle of direct measurement, which will hopefully improve the accuracy of the current research based on the principle of indirect measurement. The technique will help the industry provide consistent, superior quality fruit for the consumer and improve industry competitiveness and profitability.