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##### Presentation Transcript

1. * Reading Assignments: All Sections

2. 8. Hydrostatic Stability Describe the states of vertical stratification of atmosphere: * Stable equilibrium * Unstable equilibrium * Neutral equilibrium

3. 8.1 Parcel method

4. The vertical acceleration of a unit mass air parcel is proportional to its displacement and the difference between the parcel and environmental lapse rates.

5. 8.2 Stability Categories 8.2.1 Stability in terms of temperature lapse rate

6. * For unsaturated air * For saturated air

7. 8.2.2 Moisture Dependence * For both unsaturated and saturated air 1) Absolute unstable Absolute stable 2) Conditionally unstable 3) Stable for unsaturated air Unstable for saturated air

8. 8.2.3 Stability in terms of potential temperature * For unsaturated air * For saturated air

9. 8.3 Implications for vertical motion The vertical momentum equation for an unsaturated air parcel N is called the Brunt-Väisäillä frequency. If the atmospheric stratification is stable, N > 0.

10. Meteorology 341 Homework (8) • Problem 8 on page 201 • Problem 15 on page 201 3. An air parcel, which has LCL (Lifting Condensation Level) at height of hc , ascends in a conditionally unstable environment, show the height of LFC (Level of Free Convection) hf are constants.

11. 8.4 Conditional instability Potential Energy: Kinetic Energy: Convective Available Potential Energy: the total potential energy available for conversion to kinetic energy

12. Potential Energy::

13. Conditional instability is classified into three types: 1) Stable type: no positive area 2) Real latent type: positive area is larger than negative area 3) Pseudo latent type: negative area is larger than positive area

14. 1)

15. 2)

16. 3)

17. where and are the air parcel’s temperature and vertical velocity, respectively.If the temperature lapse rate of the environment is 12oC/km from surface to 500m and the surface temperature is 27oC, find the kinetic energy for an unsaturated air parcel in this layer. When the height is used as the vertical coordinate, the kinetic energy for the air parcel within a layer is defined as

18. 8.5 Effect of entrainment on ascending parcels is the ratio of entraining mass per unit height over the air mass. is defined as the mass entrainment height.

19. 8.6 Modification of stability due to the displacement of layer * Potential Instability

20. * Vertical compression and expansion For Stability decreases Instability decreases No change

21. 8.7 Layer (slice) method One assumption in the parcel method is that the environment remains undisturbed. The layer method removes this assumption by allowing the compensatory subsidence for the ascent of an air mass.

22. The stability criterion:

23. * Both ascending and descending air is unsaturated

24. 8.8 Stabilizing and destabilizing effects * External heat transfer