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Cultural impacts of tourism

Cultural Impacts of Tourism

TOMG200 Tourism Management & Environment

The cultural impacts of tourism
The Cultural Impacts of Tourism

  • Culture is “the set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group, and that encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs”

    (UNESCO – cited in Hall & Lew, 2009: 141)

  • Socio-cultural impacts of tourism

    ( - see chapter 4 in Hall & Lew, 2009)

In this lecture
In this lecture:

  • Reflections on my role in Māori tourism research

  • Opportunities for Māori Tourism

  • Key issues, barriers & impediments

  • Future journey of Māori in tourism

  • Study group discussion (3)

Reflections on my role in m ori tourism research
Reflections on my Role in Māori Tourism Research

  • 1997 - 1999: Strategies for Sustainable Māori tourism

  • 2000 – 2001: He Matai Tapoi Māori

  • 2000 – 2004: Sustainable Tourism Planning & Development (FRST)

    • Demand & supply (McIntosh, 2004)

    • Cross-cultural experiences

    • Kaupapa Māori research: Māori-centred Tourism (McIntosh, Zygadlo & Matunga, 2004)

  • Importance of meaningful relationships, process and sensitivities

  • Supervision of Māori research students (partnerships)

M ori tourism opportunities
Māori Tourism - Opportunities

  • Experiences based on gazing, lifestyle, authenticity, personal interactionand informal learning(McIntosh, 2004); physicaland emotional involvement, translation and explanation (Colmar Brunton, 2004)

  • Need to overcome “seen it once before” and “lack of time” barriers.

  • Potential to deliver cultural information as an added-value product to tourism experiences (McIntosh, 2004)

Tourist perceptions of m ori culture mcintosh 2004
Tourist Perceptions of Māori Culture (McIntosh, 2004)

  • High level of awareness but prior knowledge was limited.

  • Impressions were traditional, stereotypical.

“rugby”, “tribal”, “dark skin”, “dance performance”, “tongue sticking out”, “traditional”, “exotic”, “different”.

Extent of cultural motivation mcintosh 2004
Extent of Cultural Motivation (McIntosh, 2004)

  • Not a primary motivation for visiting New Zealand

  • Important experience of “difference” or “exotic other”

  • Emphasis on gazing rather than cultural understanding

  • Majority reported gaining an experience / knowledge of Māori culture

Implications mcintosh 2004
Implications (McIntosh, 2004)

  • Tourists may seek similar experiences from their encounters with indigenous peoples.

  • Less formally structured ‘meaningful’ interaction or added-value product may constitute the most appropriate development option.

  • Raises important implicatons for product development and sustainable tourism.

Key issues barriers impediments
Key issues, Barriers & Impediments

  • Lack of opportunities to market Māori tourism.

  • Stereotyped “Other”.

  • Perceived quality & range of product

  • Insufficient representation on key industry organisations.

  • Lack of capital investment.

  • Lack of education & training resources.

  • Lack of research in Māori tourism issues.

  • Lack of national strategy to improve Māori involvement, participation & representation.

  • Need for self-determined development.

Marketing new zealand s indigenous advantage issues for sustainable m ori tourism
Marketing New Zealand’s ‘Indigenous Advantage’ – Issues for Sustainable Māori Tourism

  • 2 key issues relating to cultural identity:

    • Authenticity

    • Inclusivity

  • Marketing culture for tourism, not marketing cultural tourism

Concluding remarks
Concluding Remarks

  • Most of the literature on

    indigenous people’s role

    in tourism emphasises the role of their culture as a tourism product rather than a process.

  • There is a need to rethink the way Māori tourism is defined, developed and promoted: – it’s perhaps about marketing cultural tourism rather than marketing culture for tourism.

  • How can ‘sustainable’ cultural tourism be achieved?

Sustainable tourism management
Sustainable Tourism Management

“Development that meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future”

(WTO, 1997) [p.218].

In conclusion sustainable indigenous cultural tourism management involves
In Conclusion:Sustainable (Indigenous) Cultural Tourism Management involves:

  • Recognising the importance of cultural identity

  • Looking after it/them

  • Developing mutually beneficial partnerships

  • Incorporating cultural issues in business planning

  • Marketing & promoting cultural products responsibly

  • Providing high quality visitor experiences

  • Respecting indigenous rights and obligations / being sensitive to cultural issues

  • Achieving cultural empowerment

The future journey for m ori tourism
The Future Journey for Māori Tourism?

  • Increased participation.

  • Build Māori capability.

  • Māori culture & identity

    is protected.

  • Commitment from successive governments.

  • Partnerships & a whole of sector approach for regional tourism planning, development & marketing.

  • Greater emphasis on Māori self-determination for development that is culturally sustainable.

Individual discussion question 3
Individual Discussion Question (3)

Watch the videos of case studies Tamaki Tours and Whale of a Tale (Whale Watch Kaikoura) – on MyWeb & You Tube clip:

Individual discussion question 31
Individual Discussion Question (3)


How can ‘sustainable’ Māori cultural tourism be achieved?