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  1. Bell Ringer • Name one thing you remember about the Greek philosophers from yesterday’s lecture.

  2. Rome and the Rise of Christianity Chapter 5

  3. The Rise of Rome • Italy is a peninsula on the European continent where Rome is located • The Apennines Mountains did not divide Italy the was Greece was divided by mountains • Italy had more farming land and could thus support more people • Its central location in the Mediterranean Sea would lead to its success in governing the Roman Empire later • Rome was located on the Tiber River which gave them access to the Sea, but was far enough inland to keep them safe from pirates

  4. The Rise of Rome • Indo-Europeans moved into Italy from 1500-1000 BC • One group who lived in Latium was called the Latins • They were farmers and herders who lived in huts • After 800 BC other groups including the Greeks and the Etruscans began to settle on the peninsula as well

  5. The Rise of Rome • The Greeks settled Italy from 750-550 BC along the coast and on Sicily • They passed on their alphabet, cultivated olives and grapes, and gave Rome artistic models • The Etruscans were even more influential • Rome was just a city until the Etruscans built massive buildings • They passed on togas and their style of military organization

  6. The Rise of Rome • Rome began as a monarch with 7 kings • The last three were Etruscan, so we know Rome was under Etruscan influence for a while • In 509 BC the Romans overthrew the last Etruscan king and established a republic • A republic is a form of government in which the leader doesn’t have absolute power, certain citizens have the right to vote

  7. The Rise of Rome • For the first 200 years Rome was surrounded by enemies, thus always at war • In 338 BC the Romans gained control of Latium and then 50 years later gained control of the Apennines • The Romans went to war with the Greeks and by 264 they owned all of Southern Italy

  8. The Rise of Rome • In order to govern Rome they came up with the Roman Confederation • They gave certain conquered people (Latins) Roman citizenship; others became allies • They could run their own local affairs but were required to provide soldier for Rome • This way the conquered people felt like they had a stake in Rome’s success

  9. The Rise of Rome • In order to govern Rome they came up with the Roman Confederation • They gave certain conquered people (Latins) Roman citizenship; others became allies • They could run their own local affairs but were required to provide soldier for Rome • This way the conquered people felt like they had a stake in Rome’s success

  10. The Rise of Rome • Romans believed their ancestors were successful because of their sense of duty, courage, and discipline • Romans were good diplomats • They were shrewd when extending citizenships and allowing states to run their own local affairs • However, they could be firm and cruel without mercy

  11. The Rise of Rome • Romans excelled in military matters • They were accomplished and persistent • If they lost an army or fleet they built a new one • As they conquered, they built fortified towns • They built roads connecting these towns thus able to get soldiers moved quickly • They didn’t try to build ideal governments, instead created governments to answer problems as they arose

  12. The Rise of Rome • Early Rome was divided into two groups • Patricians: landowners who become the ruling class • Plebeians: less wealthy landholders, craftsmen, merchants and small farmers • Men from both groups could vote but only Patricians could be elected to office

  13. The Rise of Rome • The chief executive officers of the Roman Republic were consuls and praetors • The consuls ran the government and led the army into battle • The praetors were judges • The Roman Senate was a special group of 300 patricians who created laws

  14. The Rise of Rome • The rest of the voting population was broken down into assemblies • The centuriate assembly was made up of mostly patricians • This assembly got to elect officials and pass law • The council of the plebs was an assembly made for the plebeians so they would feel like they had power

  15. The Rise of Rome • A class struggle began between the two groups • Eventually the plebeians were permitted to become consuls and pass laws • By 287 BC supposedly all citizens were equal under the law, however a few plebeian and patrician families formed a new senatorial ruling class that dominated politics • Rome was not a true democracy

  16. The Rise of Rome • Rome established the Twelve Tables • This was their first code of laws • This was later be adapted to fit the changing Republic (these only applied to citizens) • To answer questions dealing with non-citizens they adopted the Law of Nations • This establishes standards of justice meant for all people • Innocent until proven guilty • Right to defend yourself before a judge

  17. The Rise of Rome • Rome became fearful of Carthage, a powerful African country, because of its proximity to Sicily • Read p. 153-154 “Rome Conquers the Mediterranean”

  18. Assignment • P. 154 #1-7

  19. From Republic to Empire • Unrest began to occur in Rome due to the number or landless poor • Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus (GRA-kuhs) urged the council of the plebs to pass land reform so that the small farmers could once again work • Many Senators were enraged at the suggestion, and killed Tiberius and Gaius

  20. From Republic to Empire • From 82-31 BC Rome was characterized by civil war • Three men are going to emerge as victors: Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar • Together they formed the First Triumvirate • A triumvirate is a government by three people with equal power • Crassus is killed in battle in 53 BC, leaving only two

  21. From Republic to Empire • The Senate decided that Pompey should rule and asked Caesar to lay down his command • Caesar refused • He chose to keep his army and moved into Italy illegally by crossing the Rubicon (we use the phrase “Crossing the Rubicon” to mean no turning back today) • Caesar is going to defeat Pompey’s forces and officially became dictator in 45 BC

  22. From Republic to Empire • Caesar gave land to the poor and increased the Senate to 900 • This weakened the power of the Senate • In 44 BC a group of Senators assassinated him • Three men came together to create the Second Triumvirate • Octavian, Caesar’s heir and grandnephew • Antony, Caesar’s ally and assistant • Lepidus, commander of Caesar’s cavalry • Within two years Octavian took control of the west while Antony controlled the east

  23. From Republic to Empire • Octavian and Antony began battling for control • Antony aligned with Cleopatra VII • Octavian’s forces smashed them • Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide • Octavian, 32, was supreme ruler of the Rome • He gave some power back to the Senate • In 27 BC the Senate awarded him the title of “Augustus”—the revered one

  24. From Republic to Empire • The Senate called him an imperator, which means commander in chief (it is where our word emperor comes from) • Augustus stabilized the Roman Empire and gained new lands for it • When Rome failed to conqueror Germany, Augustus realized the Roman Empire’s power was not unlimited • For months, hw would beat his head on a door, shouting, “Varus (military leader), give me back my legions!”

  25. From Republic to Empire • From AD 14-180 the Roman Empire entered into the time known as the Early Empire • Augustus’ new political system allowed him to select his successor from his family