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Plato. Michael Ryan Clark. Background. (428-347 BC) Was 29 years old when Socrates was put to death He had been a pupil of his Inspired Plato to better study the conflicts in how society is and how the true and ideal society should be.

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plato

Plato

Michael Ryan Clark

background
Background
  • (428-347 BC)
  • Was 29 years old when Socrates was put to death
    • He had been a pupil of his
    • Inspired Plato to better study the conflicts in how society is and how the true and ideal society should be.
    • First deed as a philosopher was to publish Socrates’ Apology
    • He set up his own school of learning called the Academy
the eternally true beautiful and good
The Eternally true, beautiful, and good
  • Plato was concerned with the relationship between what was eternal and undeniable and what “flows”.
    • Similar to Socrates and the Sophists
  • Interested in this relationship as it relates to both nature and in morals/society.
    • Goal was essentially to grasp a reality which encompassed both.
    • Wanted to draw people’s attention to what is eternally true, beautiful, and good.
a world of ideas
A world of ideas
  • Plato believed that everything in the natural world flowed.
  • Believed that although everything is made of material that is subject to erosion.
    • But also thought that everything was made from a timeless mold that is eternal and undeniable.
    • His focus, unlike Democritus, was not on the changing elements, but the original and unchanging pattern that first existed.
    • He came to the conclusion that there must be a reality behind the material world, the world of ideas, which had original patterns that existed from the beginning.
example
example
  • Everyone loves Legos
  • Imagine you build a Lego building and take it down and put it back in the box.
  • The building cant rebuild itself, you have to do it.
  • You can do this using an original sketch implanted in your mind that was the model and remains both undeniable and eternal.
true knowledge
True knowledge
  • Plato strongly believed that we can not always trust the evidence of our senses.
  • Everything in the natural world around us in constantly flowing and changing.
  • His point was that we can never have true knowledge of anything that is constantly in a state of change.
example1
Example
  • Mr. Dunn asks the class which color of the rainbow is prettiest.
  • Joe says pink, Kevin says purple, Jad says violet, and so on.
    • Many different answers.
    • He then asks what 8x3 is.
    • All the answers are the same, 24 (hopefully).
    • Reason is now being used instead of feeling, or the use of senses, a strong belief of Plato.
    • We can have inexact conceptions of things sought with our senses, true knowledge and understanding comes through reason.
two regions
Two regions
  • Plato believed mainly that reality is divided into two regions
    • World of Senses- we can have approximate knowledge and incomplete conclusions through the use of our five senses.
    • World of Ideas- true knowledge is gained using reason, and the studying of the original and eternal forms, not of changing ideas.
the philosophic state
The philosophic state
  • Plato’s idea of the ideal state is one governed by philosophers.
  • Gives an example using the human body.
    • Body is composed of three parts, head (reason), chest (will), and abdomen (appetite).
    • When these parts work together, a harmonious being is formed.
    • The ideal state would include officials who each know their overall place.
    • His political philosophy is characterized by rationalism, and the idea that a good state depends on its being governed with reason.
works cited
Works cited
  • Gaarder, Jostein. Sophie's World: a Novel about the History of Philosophy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1994. Print.
  • http://www.philosophypages.com/ph/plat.htm
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