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Mutations. Figure 14.25. Mutations. Sickle-cell hemoglobin. Wild-type hemoglobin. Mutant hemoglobin DNA. Wild-type hemoglobin DNA. changes in the genetic material Point mutations changes in one or a few nucleotide pairs of a gene can lead to the production of an abnormal protein. A. C.

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Mutations


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    1. Mutations

    2. Figure 14.25 Mutations Sickle-cell hemoglobin Wild-type hemoglobin Mutant hemoglobin DNA Wild-type hemoglobin DNA • changes in the genetic material • Point mutations changes in one or a few nucleotide pairs of a gene • can lead to the production of an abnormal protein A C C C C 5 T 5 3 3 G G T A 3 G G 3 5 5 mRNA mRNA G G A G G 3 5 U 5 3 Sickle-cell hemoglobin Normal hemoglobin Glu Val

    3. Sickle Cell Anemia

    4. Figure 14.26a Substitutions Wild type DNA template strand 3 5 T A C T T C A A A C C G A T T 5 3 A T G A A G T T T G G C T A A • A nucleotide-pair substitution replaces one nucleotide and its partner with another pair of nucleotides • Silent mutationshave no effect on the amino acid produced by a codon because of redundancy in the genetic code mRNA 5 3 A U G A A G U U U G G C U A A Protein Lys Gly Met Phe Stop Amino end Carboxyl end Nucleotide-pair substitution: silent A instead of G 3 T A C T T C A A A C C A A T T 5 5 3 A T G A A G T T T G G T T A A U instead of C 5 3 A U G A A G U U U G G U U A A Lys Gly Met Phe Stop

    5. Gene mutation: Substitution

    6. Figure 14.26b Substitutions Wild type DNA template strand 3 T A C T T C A A A C C G A T T 5 5 3 A T G A A G T T T G G C T A A • Missense mutations still code for an amino acid, but not the correct amino acid • Substitution mutations are usually missense mutations mRNA 5 3 A U G A A G U U U G G C U A A Protein Lys Gly Met Phe Stop Amino end Carboxyl end Nucleotide-pair substitution: missense T instead of C 5 3 T A C T T C A A A T C G A T T 5 3 A T G A A G T T T A G C T A A A instead of G 5 3 A U G A A G U U U A G C U A A Lys Ser Met Phe Stop

    7. Figure 14.26c Substitutions Wild type DNA template strand T A C T T C A A A C C G A T T 3 5 5 3 • Nonsense mutations change an amino acid codon into a stop codon, usu. a nonfunctional protein A T G A A G T T T G G C T A A mRNA 5 3 A U G A A G U U U G G C U A A Protein Lys Gly Met Phe Stop Amino end Carboxyl end Nucleotide-pair substitution: nonsense A instead of T 3 T A C A T C A A A C C G A T T 5 5 3 A T G T A G T T T G G C T A A U instead of A 5 3 A U G U A G U U U G G C U A A Met Stop

    8. Figure 14.26d Insertions and Deletions Wild type DNA template strand 3 5 T A C T T C A A A C C G A T T • Insertions and deletions are additions or losses of nucleotide pairs in a gene • disastrous effects on the resulting protein • may alter the reading frame, producing a frameshift mutation 5 3 A T G A A G T T T G G C T A A mRNA 5 3 A U G A A G U U U G G C U A A Protein Lys Gly Met Phe Stop Amino end Carboxyl end Nucleotide-pair insertion: frameshift causing immediate nonsense Extra A 3 5 T A C A T T C A A A C C G A T T 5 3 A T G T A A G T T T G G C T A A Extra U 3 5 A U G U A A G U U U G G C U A A Met Stop

    9. Gene Mutation: Deletion or Insertion?

    10. Gene Mutation: Deletion Insertion

    11. Figure 14.26e w/Frameshift Wild type DNA template strand 3 5 T A C T T C A A A C C G A T T 5 3 A T G A A G T T T G G C T A A mRNA 5 3 A U G A A G U U U G G C U A A Protein Lys Gly Met Phe Stop Amino end Carboxyl end Nucleotide-pair deletion: frameshift causing extensive missense missing A 5 3 T A C T T C A A C C G A T T 3 5 G A T G A A G T T G C T A A missing U 5 3 A U G A A G U U G G C U A A Leu Lys Ala Met

    12. Figure 14.26f w/no frameshift Wild type DNA template strand 3 T A C T T C A A A C C G A T T 5 5 3 A T G A A G T T T G G C T A A mRNA 5 3 A U G A A G U U U G G C U A A Protein Lys Gly Met Phe Stop Amino end Carboxyl end 3 nucleotide-pair deletion: no frameshift, but one amino acid missing missing T T C 5 3 T A C A A A C C G A T T 3 5 A T G T T T G G C T A A missing A G A 5 3 A U G U U U G G C U A A Met Phe Gly Stop

    13. Mutagens • Spontaneous mutationscan occur during DNA replication, recombination, or repair • Mutagens are physical or chemical agents that can cause mutations • Most carcinogens are mutagenic and visa versa